المساعد الشخصي الرقمي

مشاهدة النسخة كاملة : ملتقـــى طالبات الكليات الصحية00 مادة 145 حين



الصفحات : [1] 2 3

un 3aglh
16th March 2009, 09:26 PM
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته

كيفكم ياصحيّات ؟ إن شاء الله تمام ؟

نكمل مابدأنا به , ,
نظراً لحاجتنا للترتيب حتى تكون الفائدة و المعلومة الصحيحة
هذا الموضوع هوملتقى الشرح- الاخبار-الاستفسارات لمادة 145 حين
,

الموضوع بيكون حوسه طيب ؟
ماراح يكون حوسه بإذن الله بوجود مشرفه ترتبكم قدر استطاعتها
+
تعاونكم
..
الليدر : Dr.LaMoOo
اسمعوا كلامها , ولاتزعلونها حس1 , أي شيء في خاطركم ترسلونه لها
برجاء شديد تتبعون الأسلوب اللي طالبته حتى يسهل عليها تحقق كل اللي تبونه منها


و ماننسى يد وحده مابتسفئش..



Dr.LaMoOo


لكِ المايك ياقميل ض1

Dr.LaMoOo
16th March 2009, 09:54 PM
مرحبا جميعا

بأذن الله راح يكون هذا الموضوع مخصص لاي حاجه تتعلق بماده الحين 145( محاضرات +معمل )

السلايدات الكويزات الاستفسارات اي اخبار جديده تتعلق بالماده راح تنزل هنا

فياليت نتساعد مع بعض عشان نقدر نستفيد كلنا :)

*وأتمنى أي وحده عندها أضافه أو شي تعرفه عن الماده تراسلني ع الخاص وتقولي اياه عشان نتأكد من الخبر وينزل بالموضوع

*وأي اضافه بدون لاترسلي اعذروني راح تحذف عشان مانتلخبط ونكون متأكدين من كل حاجه

*ردود الشكر ياليت ماتكون موجوده عشان مايصير لخبطه ورودود كثيره

وان شاء الله نقدر نتعاون ونساعد بعض عشان نقدر نعدي هالماده بالمعدلات المطلوبه


[[الكتاب المطلوب للماده ]]

Biology Campell and reece
7 edition
Or
8 edition
عناوين او مواضيع الكتاب :

*Cell types
*Cell molecules
*The cell organelles
*Enzymes, Energy production
Cell membrane*
*Mitosis and Meiosis
Mendl's First low*
*Mendl's Second low
*Information codes and genes
*Introduction to the Endocrine system
The nervous system*
*The human reproductive system

بالنسبه للمعمل :

في note book +CD بينباع بالمعمل



الدكتورات اللي يدرسواا الماده :-

د\ بومي فيرك \
هنــــا (http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/74484/default.aspx)

+

د\ انتصار السحيباني
هــــنا (http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/ealsuhaibani/default.aspx)

+
د\ تهاني عياد
هنــــا (http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/tahanyayaad/default.aspx)
+

د\ علا الهابط
هنــــا (http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/71910/default.aspx)
[/URL]
+

د\ ناديه العيسى
هنــــا (http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/71910/default.aspx)

+

أ\ مها الشيخ
[URL="http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/2359/default.aspx"]هنــــا (http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/4125/Pages/106%20Zoo.aspx)


أي اضافه او حذف بالاستاذات ياليت يكون برايفت لي

*وهذي كل السلايدات بالترتيب

chap5 Macromolecules
http://up2.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/4/7/01/vswbigav8.pdf/jpg (http://up2.m5zn.com/download-2009-4-7-01-vswbigav8.pdf)

Prokaryotes
http://up2.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/4/7/01/ezcdeox5c.pdf/jpg (http://up2.m5zn.com/download-2009-4-7-01-ezcdeox5c.pdf)

Chap6 The Cell
http://up2.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/4/7/01/uifpfb80a.pdf/jpg (http://up2.m5zn.com/download-2009-4-7-01-uifpfb80a.pdf)

chap7 Membrane Structure
http://up2.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/4/7/01/l6ovjnzlj.pdf/jpg (http://up2.m5zn.com/download-2009-4-7-01-l6ovjnzlj.pdf)
Chap8 Metabolism
http://up2.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/4/7/07/5x7f69qoh.pdf/jpg (http://up2.m5zn.com/download-2009-4-7-07-5x7f69qoh.pdf)

Chap9 Cellular Respiration
http://up2.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/4/7/07/cg8ioic9z.pdf/jpg (http://up2.m5zn.com/download-2009-4-7-07-cg8ioic9z.pdf)

Chap5,16 DNA Replication
http://up2.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/4/7/07/0hb0gmwgu.pdf/jpg (http://up2.m5zn.com/download-2009-4-7-07-0hb0gmwgu.pdf)
Chap 17-From gene to protein
http://up2.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/4/7/07/4d2l1wo7t.pdf/jpg (http://up2.m5zn.com/download-2009-4-7-07-4d2l1wo7t.pdf)

Chap12 Cell division
http://up2.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/4/7/07/868j4ozm8.pdf/jpg (http://up2.m5zn.com/download-2009-4-7-07-868j4ozm8.pdf)
Chap13 Meiosis
http://up2.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/4/7/07/lq94k3yd8.pdf/jpg (http://up2.m5zn.com/download-2009-4-7-07-lq94k3yd8.pdf)

Chap14 Mendel
http://up2.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/4/7/07/i1x1p25j2.pdf/jpg (http://up2.m5zn.com/download-2009-4-7-07-i1x1p25j2.pdf)

Chap45 Hormones
http://up2.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/4/7/07/npa2xxbch.pdf/jpg (http://up2.m5zn.com/download-2009-4-7-07-npa2xxbch.pdf)



*اوقات الاختبارات
*والشرائح حقت البايو

قريبا أن شاء الله

اتمنى الكل يتجاوب معي مثل ما قلت و نساعد بعض في كل شي

موفقين(f)

Dr.LaMoOo
19th March 2009, 01:15 AM
بالنسبه للحين العملي

note book +CD

بدأوا يبيعوه ابتداء من يوم الاربعا 18\3\2008

:)

شكرا طموحي الجنون (f)

Dr.LaMoOo
19th March 2009, 03:44 PM
هذا شرح لاول شابتر اخذناه ((شابتر 5))


http://file12.9q9q.net/Download/84624741/b05_Biomolecules.doc.html


(f)

Dr.Nefo
21st March 2009, 02:28 PM
السلام عليكم


المعذرة على اللقافة

بالنسبة للي محتاس ولايدري من وين يدرس .. بداية الاسابيع الشخص راح يحس بانه مو فاهم شي طبيعي ... مصطلحات جديدة وصعبة الواحد يستوعبها الا تدريجيا لذلك روقو وان شاء الله مع الوقت بتكون هالمادة مادة سهلة جدا والكل يطمح بالمعدل فيها :)


بالاضافة الى سلايداتكم الصور اللي بالكتاب " صور وعليها شرح لخلاصة كل موضوع " مهمة جدا ودائما يجيبون منها اسئلة .. الصور جدا بسيطة وشرحها بسيط لذلك اللي متعيجز يدرس من الكتاب اتوقع والعلم عند الله ان سلايداتكم + صور الكتاب كافية باذن الله


المعذرة على المداخله ... وبالتوفيق للجميع(f)

Dr.Noufa
23rd March 2009, 01:35 PM
Shokran mara Dr.lamo0o 3ala johodek
ya36eek el3afia

Dr.LaMoOo
23rd March 2009, 03:55 PM
طيب عادي ارجعه لهم يوم الثلاثاء
اتوقع انهم راح يرفضون
معليه دكتوره لمو انتي مين قال لك ؟
لإني قريتها وتشبه السلايدات حقت دكتوره تهاني!!!

وحده استاذه دخلت بالاب وقالت البنات اللي اشتروا يرجعوها لانها تصورت بالغلط
:)

ايوا اتوقع عادي جربي ورجعيها

Dr.LaMoOo
23rd March 2009, 06:57 PM
as076


يعني شلوون !! الملزمه اللي باعوها يوم الأحد اللي مكتوب عليها ’’ د. نادية االعيسى ’’ مو كويــسه ؟! نرجعها ؟!

الملزمه اللي قالوا لك حقت النظري رجعيها

بس ملزمه العملي هي اللي تاخذينها

Caffeine
25th March 2009, 08:40 PM
,,

بنات اللي تبغى سي دي النظري مطبوع ( يعني على شكل ملزمة ض2 )

تلقونها في المهندس

وهذا الكروكي حقهم http://www.almhnds.com/5/kk.jpg


والاخ المسؤول عن المذكرات هو الاخ / شريف على تلفون المكتب

4833338

بصراحة انهم متعاونين , ورحبوا بطباعتها وتصويرها لنا

راح تلقونها اليوم ان شاء الله

:f:

*may
29th March 2009, 05:59 PM
شوفوا هذا الخبر // اليوم شفته معلق على باب لاب البايو

http://www.cksu.com/vb/uploaded/44644/1238338479.jpg


الله يعين مدري كيف بحضر الاختبار و انا اداوم الاثنين بجامعة نوره :ل6:

وين الي بتصير اختبارتنا موحده خميسات لو2

طموحي الجنون
3rd April 2009, 03:33 AM
الشابترات اللي معانا

شابتر 5 اللي هو عن بروتين وكربوهيدرات ودهون

شابتر 6 اللي ينقسم قسمين

قسم Prokaryotic مثل بكتيريا وفايروس

وقسم Eukaryotic زي خلايا نباتية وحيوانية

وماتحتوية من اجسام جولجي وشبكة اندوبلازيمة.....االخ لخ

واخر شابتر اللي هو شابتر 7

عن cell membrane

يعني بالعربي أول 4 ملفات

بالسي دي النظري هي امتحاننا فيرست ميد

DR. Hano6a

ذاكري من سي دي ارتب لك

من سلايدات أشرف

موفقين جميعا

تحيااتي..

`·.·``·.Muneerah
5th April 2009, 01:10 AM
أدري كثرتها >< بس ببالي أشياء بقولها :D


أوصيكم بأسئلة سي دي الكتاب

لا تخافون من الكميه أهم شي أفهموا كل كلمه

اختباركم MCQs ولو جابوا لكم شي ينكتب بيجيبون مصطلح بس !

أقروا الأسئلة زين

أسئلوا عن الكلمات اللي ما تعرفون معناها

ممكن تجيكم رسمات بس سهله مره من الفهم تحلينها ,,, رسمه ومأشرين لك على شي ومعطينك أربع خيارات , ,

مثال
عندكم رسمة الـ lipid ويكون محددين التراي اسايل مدري ايش (ما اتذكر بالضبط )

او الـ cell membrane ومحددين على الـ carbohydrate chain

لو جاكم سؤال شكله صعب ولا عرفتوا تحلونه من اول مره

اقروه مره ثانيه بتلقون انه تافه :D

=======

بأذن الله الماده هاذي بتحببكم بالعلوم كلها وبتكون بداية خير بأمتحاناتكم قلب2

موفقين قلب2



يابنات تتوقعون لو بس ذاكرنا من سلايدات اشرف راح يمشي الحال لان احس سلايداتنا كئيبة تسد النفس ام بسلايدات اشرف فيها ترجمه عطاير ومرتبة
ااه اه اه اه يابنات حاسة اني ضايعه مع ذي الماده احسها تعتمد على الي انجليزيتهم حلوة ونا الله يستر على انجليزيتي ما قول الا الله يعينا اجمعين ويوفقنا كلنا وان شاء الله ولا احد يحمل اي ماده من بنات التحضرية قولو ااامييين

اعرف بنات كثير يمكن اكون منهم انجليزيتهم بطيخيه وجابوا A+

:s

Dr.LaMoOo
7th April 2009, 11:03 PM
الاختبار بإذن الله

يوم الخميس


16\4\2009

20\4\1430

من الساعه 9 - 10


الشابتر اللي معانا :

شابتر 5 و 6 و7

Dr.LaMoOo
12th April 2009, 08:50 PM
)) Dr.LaMoOo (( ياحلوة هذي الشابتر اللي نزلتيه مترجم ؟؟ لإنه مو راضي يتحمل معايا صيغة الملف مو معروفة :( .... وإذا ما عليك أمر نزليها ثاني بصيغة غير اذا مترجمة ....

انا حاولت اذاكر اليوم بس من جد انحست... لو بقعد اترجم ملزمة المهندس بيضيع الوقت ع الفاضي
لإني الاقي نفسي حتى بعد الترجمة زي الأطرش بالزفة ل3 بلااااااا فخررر :(

أحس بنتحر ايش اسووووووي ؟؟؟؟؟؟

لا والله مو مترجم

هذي نفس السلايدات اللي بالسي دي

الدختورة زليخه
12th April 2009, 10:35 PM
http://www.cksu.com/vb/t139560/#post2089297

haya 08
13th April 2009, 01:17 AM
^ ^ ^



أنا توني باديـة 6 وحاسـه إني شئ كويس ض1

الله يعيين بس انتي أهم شئ لاتعطين نفسك دفعاات سلبيه لأنهاا رااح تحطمممك مز1


- - -


بنات حبيت أساعدكم شوي وبكتب تلخيص لتشابتر 5

التشابتر 3 أقسـام

1 \ يتكلم عن الـ CARBOHYDRATES و الدهون LIPIDS و PROTEINS و NUCLEIC ACIDS


2 \ يتـكلم عن التغذيـة أو على قولـت دكتورتنا " الإغـتزاء " ض1


3 \ يتكلم عن مقارنـة بين ال EUKARYOTES الكائنات المتقدمـة و ال PROKARYOTES الكائنات الدقيقـة

بعدين يشـرحلنا نوعين من ال PROKAYOTES اللي هي ال Bacteria و ال Viruses


أتمنى إني فدتكـم مع إني ماصلحت شئ لكن أنا متعودة ما أذاكر إلا لمن أرتب المعلومات قدامي ..



- - -

بــناات أحد يدير من وين أجيب أسئلة أحيـاء حقت سنوات سـابقـة .. واللي عندها ياليت تنزلها بمركز التصوير اللي بالملز


وشكـراا مقدماا (f)

نقآء !
13th April 2009, 05:59 AM
http://www.cksu.com/vb/t139571/#post2090138#post2090138
^
^
ترجمة الحين ن2

Dr.Tamara
13th April 2009, 07:14 PM
Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Macromolecules

1 .A dehydration reaction (or condensation reaction) is the process in which _____.
A- water molecules are attracted to each other
B- water molecules are used as a source of raw material to break down polymers to monomers
C- water molecules are produced as a polymer is formed from monomers
D- the bonds between the individual monomers of a polymer are broken by the addition of water molecules
E- none of the above
the answer is : C

2 .The four main categories of macromolecules present in living systems are _____.
A-proteins, DNA, RNA, and steroids
B-monosaccharides, lipids, polysaccharides, and proteins
C-proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids
D-nucleic acids, carbohydrates, monosaccharides, and proteins
E-RNA, DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates
the answer is :C

3 .What is the main monosaccharide used by human cells for energy?
A-any monosaccharide
B-glycogen
C-sucrose
D-glucose
E-saccharin
the answer is : D

4.The disaccharide that is formed when glucose is joined to fructose by a glycosidic linkage type of covalent bond is called _____.
A-maltose
B-sucrose
C-starch
D-glycogen
E-cellulose
the answer is :B

5 .Plant cell walls consist mainly of _____.
A-chitin
B-cellulose
C-peptidoglycan
D-chlorophyll
E-none of the above
the answer is :B

6 .The characteristic that all lipids have in common is that _____.
A-they are all made of fatty acids and glycerol
B-they all contain nitrogen
C-they do not have a high-energy content
D-they are all acidic when mixed with water
E-none of them dissolves in water
the answer is : E

7 .Palm oil and coconut oil are more like animal fats than are other plant oils. Because they ____ than other plant oils, they may contribute to cardiovascular disease.
A-contain fewer double bonds
B-contain more double bonds
C-contain more sodium
D-are less soluble in water
E-contain less hydrogen
the answer is :A

8 .Some regions of a polypeptide may coil or fold back on itself. This is called _____, and the coils or folds are held in place by _____.
A-tertiary structure ... hydrogen bonds
B-primary structure ... covalent bonds
C-secondary structure ... peptide bonds
D-tertiary structure ... covalent bonds
E-secondary structure ... hydrogen bonds
the answer is :E

9 .A hydrophobic amino acid R group (side group) would be found where in a protein?
A-forming a peptide bond with the next amino acid in the polypeptide chain
B-on the outside of the folded chain, in the water
C-on the inside of the folded chain, away from water
D-forming hydrogen bonds with other R groups
E-only at one end of a protein chain
the answer is :C

10.The building blocks or monomers of nucleic acid molecules are called _____.
A-polysaccharides
B-pyrimidines and purines
C-fatty acids
D-nucleotides
E-DNA and RNA
the answer is : D

Caffeine
13th April 2009, 11:22 PM
106 ZOO Quiz (Model Answer) (http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/ealsuhaibani/106%20ZOO%20Quiz%20Model%20Answer/Forms/AllItems.aspx)

http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/wadaan/Documents/106ZOOquestions.pps

هذا كم رابط عن الحين , شكلها نماذج اختبارات غ2

>> معليش في النوم فما أدري وش سالفتها ض2

طموحي الجنون
14th April 2009, 02:49 AM
هاي جيرلز

اكيد اشتقتولي >>اخلصي

اي هاف تو كويستشنس

الاول

هل الامتحان كله MCQ

لان ميس برومي قالت لنا زي نموذج اللي بسي دي اللي شريناه

ونموذج السي دي فيه فراغات وخرابيط

>>صدق كلامها ولابس تبينا نذاكر بضمير

يعني الحاجة الجميلة اللي اسمها رسمات

نكتب البيانات حنا ولا حتكون خيارات

السؤال الثاني

انا كتابي 7 th edition

فتحت السي دي حقه لقيت خمسين مليون ملف

وجوا كل ملف خمسين ملف

وين القى الامتحانات التجريبية اللي تقولوا عنها

وشكراا جزيلاااا

تحياتي

دراسة موفقة

`·.·``·.Muneerah
14th April 2009, 03:21 PM
^^^^

لازم يفتح لك بروقرم

لا تفتحين السي دي بopen

سوي play

اتوقع كذا ><

Dr.Tamara
14th April 2009, 05:16 PM
Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Macromolecules

Chapter Quiz

What is the process by which monomers are linked together to form polymers?
A-hydrolysis
B-monomerization
C-protein formation
D-coiling
E-dehydration or condensation reactions
The answer is : E


In a hydrolysis reaction, _____, and in this process water is _____.
A-a polymer is broken up into its constituent monomers ... consumed
B-a monomer is broken up into its constituent polymers ... produced
C-monomers are assembled to produce a polymer ... consumed
D-monomers are assembled to produce a polymer ... produced
E-a polymer is broken up into its constituent monomers ... produced
The answer is : A


The type of bond that forms to join monomers (such as sugars and amino acids) into polymers (such as starch and proteins) is a ( n) _____ bond.
A-hydrogen
B-covalent
C-ionic
D-peptide
E-van der Waals
The answer is : B


Which of the following is a polymer?
A-testosterone, a steroid hormone
B-cellulose, a plant cell wall component
C-glucose, an energy-rich molecule
D-triacylglycerol, or fat
E-fructose, a component of sucrose
The answer is : B


Cellulose is a _____ made of many _____.
A-polypeptide ... monomers
B-carbohydrate ... fatty acids
C-polymer ... glucose molecules
D-protein ... amino acids
E-lipid ... triacylglycerols
The answer is : C

Generally, animals cannot digest (hydrolyze) the glycosidic linkages between the glucose molecules in cellulose. How then do cows get enough nutrients from eating grass?
A-They have to eat a lot of it.
B-Microorganisms in their digestive tracts hydrolyze the cellulose to individual glucose units.
C-Cows and other herbivores are exceptions and make some cellulose-digesting enzymes.
D-The flat teeth and strong stomach of herbivores break the cellulose fibers so that the cows get enough nutrition from the cell contents.
E-All of the above.
The answer is : B

In what polysaccharide form do plants store glucose to be available later as an energy source?
A-glycogen
B-cellulose
C-starch
D-protein
E-fatty acids
The answer is : C




Which one of the following carbohydrate molecules has the lowest molecular weight?
A-sucrose
B-lactose
C-glucose
D-cellulose
E-chitin
The answer is : C


Which one of the following molecules is a monosaccharide?
A-C51H98O6
B-C45H84O8PN
C-C6H12O6
D-C25H43O8
E-C22H49O10N5
The answer is : C


At a conference, the speaker's grand finale was sautéing mealworms (insect larvae) in butter and serving them to the audience. They were crunchy (like popcorn hulls) because their exoskeletons contain the polysaccharide _____.
A-collagen
B-cellulose
C-linoleic acid
D-chitin
E-glycogen
The answer is : D


Carbohydrates are used in our bodies mainly for _____.
A-membrane construction
B-structural molecules, such as hair and fingernails
C-building genetic material
D-energy storage and release
E-lipid storage
The answer is : D


The polysaccharide that you are most likely to have eaten recently is _____.
A-chitin
B-starch
C-glucose
D-lactose
E-ribose
The answer is : B


One characteristic shared by sucrose, lactose, and maltose is that _____.
A-they are all polysaccharides
B-they are all monosaccharides
C-they are all disaccharides
D-they all contain fructose
E-they are all indigestible by humans
The answer is : C



A polysaccharide that is used for storing energy in human muscle and liver cells is _____.
A-glucose
B-glycogen
C-starch
D-chitin
E-cellulose
The answer is : B



Which one of the following is not a function of carbohydrates (as a class)?
A-structural support
B-energy storage
C-energy source
D-enzymatic catalysis
E-All are carbohydrate functions.
The answer is : D


Disaccharides can differ from each other in all the following ways except _____.
A-n the number of monosaccharides they contain
B-n the type of carbonyl functional groups associated with the monosaccharide monomers
C-n the type of monomer involved
D-in the location of the glycosidic linkage
E-in the fatty acids they contain
The answer is : A


Amylase is an enzyme that breaks down starch. Why can't the same enzyme break down cellulose?
A-The enzyme cannot attack cellulose because of its helical shape.
B-Cellulose molecules are much too large.
C-Starch is made of glucose; cellulose is made of fructose.
D-The bonds between the monosaccharide monomers in cellulose are much stronger.
E-The monosaccharide monomers in cellulose are bonded together differently than in starch.
The answer is : E


The subunits (monomers) in cellulose are linked together by _____.
A-ionic bonds
B-glycosidic linkages
C-peptide bonds
D-phosphodiester linkages
E-ester linkages
The answer is : B


Which one of the following components of a tossed salad will pass through the human digestive tract and be digested the least? (Concept 5.2) [Hint]
A-sugar (in the dressing)
B-oil (in the dressing)
C-starch (in the croutons)
D-cellulose (in the lettuce)
E-protein (in the bacon bits)
The answer is : D



Lipids differ from other large biological molecules in that they _____.
A-are much larger
B-are not truly polymers
C-do not have specific shapes
D-do not contain carbon
E-do not contain nitrogen and phosphorus atoms
The answer is : B


Which is the term for compounds that do not mix with water?
A-phospholipids
B-hydrophobic
C-hydrophilic
D-proteins
E-hydrogen-bonded
The answer is : B



Nutritionally, saturated triacylglycerols are considered to be less healthful than unsaturated triacylglycerols. What is the difference between them?
A-Saturated triacylglycerols are fats; unsaturated triacylglycerols are carbohydrates.
B-Saturated triacylglycerols have more hydrogen atoms than unsaturated triacylglycerols.
C-Saturated triacylglycerols have more double bonds than unsaturated triacylglycerols.
D-Saturated triacylglycerols are liquid at room temperature.
E-All of the above.
The answer is : B


The lipids that form the main structural component of cell membranes are _____.
A-triacylglycerols
B-proteins
C-cholesterol
D-carbohydrates
E-phospholipids
The answer is : E


If a small droplet of triacylglycerol molecules is suspended in water, the fat molecules form a "ball of spaghetti" with no particular orientation. But if a droplet of phospholipid molecules is put in water, all the molecules point outward, toward the water. Phospholipids are forced into this orientation because phospholipids have _____.
A-a charged end and a noncharged end
B-three fatty acid molecules, all pointing in different directions
C-two fatty acid molecules pointing in different directions
D-both a saturated fatty acid and an unsaturated fatty acid
E-two charged ends
The answer is : A



Which one of the following is a true statement comparing phospholipids and triacylglycerols (fats and oils)?
A-Both molecules contain a phosphate group.
B-Triacylglycerols may be saturated or unsaturated, but all phospholipids are saturated.
C-Phospholipids are the primary storage form for fats in our bodies.
D-Phospholipid molecules have a distinctly polar "head" and a distinctly nonpolar "tail," whereas triacylglycerols are predominantly nonpolar.
E-In nature, phospholipids occur in fused rings (sterol form), whereas triacylglycerols maintain a straight-chain form.
The answer is : D



The sex hormones estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone belong to which class of molecules?
A-proteins
B-amino acids
C-lipids
D-carbohydrates
E-nucleic acids
The answer is : C



Manufacturers make vegetable oils solid or semisolid at room temperature by _____.
A-adding hydrogen atoms to the double bonds in the fatty acid hydrocarbon chains
B-removing hydrogen atoms and forming additional double bonds in the fatty acid hydrocarbon chains
C-removing hydrogen atoms and forming additional single bonds in the fatty acid hydrocarbon chains
D-adding hydrogen atoms to the single bonds of the fatty acid hydrocarbon chains
E-none of the above
The answer is : A



Which one of the following is the major energy storage compound of plant seeds?
A-amylose
B-glycogen
C-cellulose
D-lipids
E-oils
The answer is : E



Some lipids are formed when fatty acids are linked to glycerol. These subunits are linked together by _____.
A-glycosidic linkages
B-ionic bonds
C-peptide bonds
D-phosphodiester linkages
E-ester linkages
The answer is : E


The fatty acid tails of a phospholipid are _____ because they _____.
A-hydrophobic ... dissolve easily in water
B-hydrophobic ... have no charges to which water molecules can adhere
C-hydrophilic ... consist of units assembled by dehydration reactions
D-hydrophilic ... are easily hydrolyzed into their monomers
E-hydrophobic ... consist of units assembled by dehydration reactions
The answer is : B

Dr.Tamara
14th April 2009, 05:19 PM
شششششششششششششكرا من هنا الى سماء تسلم يدك وياااارب الفول مارك فالك

بس حبيت اسالك هاذي من اسئلة الكتاب ..؟؟؟
العفو عب1
وياك يا رب =)
ايه هذي اسئلة الكتاب

فيه كم سؤال ما حطيته بعضهم فيهم صور وanimations
و بعضهم ما اخذناهم ,, اظن اننا مو قاعدين ناخذ الشابتر كامل بس sections منه :6:

Caffeine
14th April 2009, 06:20 PM
مُترجم مصطلحات

Default Search (http://www.emro.who.int/umd/)

تركيب الخلية بالعربي غ2

http://www.smsec.com/ar/encyc/humbody/2.htm

أشياء فادتني ~
{:ff:~

الدكتوره هند
14th April 2009, 09:56 PM
ياحلوات ايش معنى هاذولي دورت عن المعنى مايطلع لي شي:
cytosol
synthesized
synthesis
وبس.

M!shoo ~
14th April 2009, 10:17 PM
cytosol
العُصارَةُ الخَلَوِيَّة
synthesized
فِعْل : يركِّب . يؤلّف . يصطنع . يُنتِج بالطرائق الصُّنعيّة
synthesis
اسْم : تركيب . تأليف . جميعة

<< من برنامج اسمة babylon خطيييييير

Dr.Ammora
15th April 2009, 12:39 AM
مرحبا بنات..
هذي بعض الأسئلة اللي نزلتها من CD الكتاب مع أجوبتها..
<<< لكن أتوقع إن في كم سؤال منها مو معنا...

ان شاء الله تستفيدوا منها..
وربي يوفقكم ..

:ورده:

Self–Quiz
Ch 5

1. Which term includes all others in the list?
a. monosaccharide
b. disaccharide
c. starch
d. carbohydrate
e. polysaccharide

2. The molecular formula for glucose is C6H12O6. What would be the molecular formula for a polymer made by linking ten glucose molecules together by dehydration reactions?
a. C60H120O60
b. C6H12O6
c. C60H102O51
d. C60H100O50
e. C60H111O51

3. The enzyme amylase can break glycosidic linkages between glucose monomers only if the monomers are the α form. Which of the following could amylase break down? (Choose all that apply.)
a. cellulose
b. chitin
c. glycogen
d. starch
e. amylopectin

4. Choose the pair of terms that correctly completes this sentence: Nucleotides are to _______ as _________ are to proteins.
a. nucleic acids; amino acids
b. amino acids; polypeptides
c. glycosidic linkages; polypeptide linkages
d. genes; enzymes
e. polymers; polypeptides

5. Which of the following statements concerning unsaturated fats is true?
a. They are more common in animals than in plants.
b. They have double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty acids.
c. They generally solidify at room temperature.
d. They contain more hydrogen than saturated fats having the same number of carbon atoms.
e. They have fewer fatty acid molecules per fat molecule.

6. The structural level of a protein least affected by a disruption in hydrogen bonding is the
a. primary level.
b. secondary level.
c. tertiary level. affected.
d. quaternary level.
e. All structural levels are equally

7. Which of the following pairs of base sequences could form a short stretch of a normal double helix of DNA?
a. 5′–purine–pyrimidine–purine–pyrimidine 3′ with 3′–purine–pyrimidine–purine–pyrimidine 5′
b. 5′–A–G–C–T–3′ with 5′–T–C–G–A–3′
c. 5′–G–C–G–C–3′ with 5′–T–A–T–A–3′
d. 5′–A–T–G–C–3′ with 5′–G–C–A–T–3′
e. a, b, and d are all correct

8. Enzymes that break down DNA catalyze the hydrolysis of the covalent bonds that join nucleotides together. What would happen to DNA molecules treated with these enzymes?
a. The two strands of the double helix would separate.
b. The phosphodiester bonds between deoxyribose sugars would be broken.
c. The purines would be separated from the deoxyribose sugars.
d. The pyrimidines would be separated from the deoxyribose sugars.
e. All bases would be separated from the deoxyribose sugars.

9. Which of the following is not a protein?
a. hemoglobin
b. cholesterol
c. an antibody
d. an enzyme
e. insulin

10. Which of the following statements about the 5′ end of a polynucleotide strand is correct?
a. The 5′ end has a hydroxyl group.
b. The 5′ end has a phosphate group.
c. The 5′ end is identical to the 3′ end.
d. The 5′ end is antiparallel to the 3′ end.
e. The 5′ end is the fifth position on one of the nitrogenous bases

___________



Self–Quiz Answers
1. d
2. c
3. c, d, and e
4. c
5. b
6. d
7. d
8. b
9. b
10. B

Dr.Ammora
15th April 2009, 12:44 AM
Self–Quiz
Ch6

1. The symptoms of a certain inherited disorder in humans include breathing problems and, in males, sterility. Which of the following is a reasonable hypothesis for the molecular basis of this disorder? (Explain your answer.)
a. a defective enzyme in the mitochondria
b. defective actin molecules in cellular microfilaments
c. defective dynein molecules in cilia and flagella
d. abnormal hydrolytic enzymes in the lysosomes
e. defective ribosome assembly in the nucleolus

2. Choose the statement that correctly characterizes bound ribosomes.
a. Bound ribosomes are enclosed in their own membrane.
b. Bound and free ribosomes are structurally different.
c. Bound ribosomes generally synthesize membrane proteins and secretory proteins.
d. The most common location for bound ribosomes is the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane.
e. All of the above.

3. Which of the following is not considered part of the endomembrane system?
a. nuclear envelope
b. chloroplast
c. Golgi apparatus
d. plasma membrane
e. ER

4. Cells of the pancreas will incorporate radioactively labeled amino acids into proteins. This “tagging” of newly synthesized proteins enables a researcher to track the location of these proteins in a cell. In this case, we are tracking an enzyme that is eventually secreted by pancreatic cells. Which of the following is the most likely pathway for movement of this protein in the cell?
a. ER→Golgi→nucleus
b. Golgi→ER→lysosome
c. nucleus→ER→Golgi
d. ER→Golgi→vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane
e. ER→lysosomes→vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane

5. Which of the following structures is common to plant and animal cells?
a. chloroplast
b. wall made of cellulose
c. tonoplast
d. mitochondrion
e. centriole

6. Which of the following is present in a prokaryotic cell?
a. mitochondrion
b. ribosome
c. nuclear envelope
d. chloroplast
e. ER

7. Which type of cell would probably provide the best opportunity to study lysosomes?
a. muscle cell
b. nerve cell
c. phagocytic white blood cell
d. leaf cell of a plant
e. bacterial cell

8. Which of the following statements is a correct distinction between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells attributable to the absence of a prokaryotic cytoskeleton?
a. Organelles are found only in eukaryotic cells.
b. Cytoplasmic streaming is not observed in prokaryotes.
c. Only eukaryotic cells are capable of movement.
d. Prokaryotic cells have cell walls.
e. Only the eukaryotic cell concentrates its genetic material in a region separate from the rest of the cell.

9. Which of the following structure–function pairs is mismatched?
a. nucleolus; ribosome production
b. lysosome; intracellular digestion
c. ribosome; protein synthesis
d. Golgi; protein trafficking
e. microtubule; muscle contraction

10. Cyanide binds with at least one of the molecules involved in the production of ATP. Following exposure of a cell to cyanide, most of the cyanide could be expected to be found within the
a. mitochondria.
b. ribosomes.
c. peroxisomes.
d. lysosomes.
e. endoplasmic reticulum.

_________________________


Self–Quiz Answers
1. c

2. c

3. b

4. d

5. d

6. b

7. c

8. b

9. e

10. A

Dr.Ammora
15th April 2009, 12:49 AM
Self–Quiz
Ch7

1. In what way do the various membranes of a eukaryotic cell differ?
a. Phospholipids are found only in certain membranes.
b. Certain proteins are unique to each membrane.
c. Only certain membranes of the cell are selectively permeable.
d. Only certain membranes are constructed from amphipathic molecules.
e. Some membranes have hydrophobic surfaces exposed to the cytoplasm, while others have hydrophilic surfaces facing the cytoplasm.

2. According to the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure, proteins of the membrane are mostly
a. spread in a continuous layer over the inner and outer surfaces of the membrane.
b. confined to the hydrophobic core of the membrane.
c. embedded in a lipid bilayer.
d. randomly oriented in the membrane, with no fixed inside–outside polarity.
e. free to depart from the fluid membrane and dissolve in the surrounding solution.

3. Which of the following factors would tend to increase membrane fluidity?
a. a greater proportion of unsaturated phospholipids
b. a greater proportion of saturated phospholipids
c. a lower temperature
d. a relatively high protein content in the membrane
e. a greater proportion of relatively large glycolipids compared to lipids having smaller molecular masses

4. Which of the following processes includes all others?
a. osmosis
b. diffusion of a solute across a membrane
c. facilitated diffusion
d. passive transport
e. transport of an ion down its electrochemical gradient

5. Based on the model of sucrose uptake in Figure 7.19, which of the following experimental treatments would increase the rate of sucrose transport into the cell?
a. decreasing extracellular sucrose concentration
b. decreasing extracellular pH
c. decreasing cytoplasmic pH
d. adding an inhibitor that blocks the regeneration of ATP
e. adding a substance that makes the membrane more permeable to hydrogen ions

Questions 6–10

An artificial cell consisting of an aqueous solution enclosed in a selectively permeable membrane has just been immersed in a beaker containing a different solution. The membrane is permeable to water and to the simple sugars glucose and fructose but completely impermeable to the disaccharide sucrose.



6. Which solute(s) will exhibit a net diffusion into the cell?

7. Which solute(s) will exhibit a net diffusion out of the cell?

8. Which solution—the cell contents or the environment—is hypertonic to the other?

9. In which direction will there be a net osmotic movement of water?

10. After the cell is placed in the beaker, which of the following changes will occur? (Choose all that apply.)
a. The artificial cell will become more flaccid.
b. The artificial cell will become more turgid.
c. Some water molecules will flow out of the cell, but the majority will flow into it.
d. The membrane potential will decrease.
e. In spite of the inability of sucrose to cross the membrane, eventually the two solutions will become isotonic.

____________________


Self–Quiz Answers
1. b
2. c
3. a
4. d
5. b
6. Fructose
7. Glucose
8. Cell contents
9. Into the cell
10. b, c, and e. Regarding e: Even though sucrose can′t reach the same concentration on each side, water flow (osmosis) will lead to isotonic conditions

نورااا
15th April 2009, 09:20 AM
أذكر د.برومي قالت لنا بالكلاس ان cytosol هو نفسه Cytoplasm

فما أدري ,,

haya 08
15th April 2009, 11:52 AM
صباح الخيـر مز1


كيف البايولوجي قلب2 <<< القلب دفعات ايجابيه ض2


صح بنات أمس رحت للمركز التصوير اللي قدام جامعة نورة قلب2 .. ولقيت عندهم نماذج اختبار للفيز .. ونموذج واحد للحين .. وهي نفسها اللي نزلوها عالمة المستقبل وعاشقة القمم قلب2 الله يجزااهم خيـر




آسئلة السنوات السابقه

وضعتها في كوبي.كوم

بصراحه الاسئلة كثيرهـ مرهـ فيها من 1417 و فيها السنوات الاخيرهـ


بالتوفيق

[ لا اطلب الا الدعاء ]



<<< لقيـته بملتقى الأولاد حق الحين .. إن شاء الله بدق عليهم اليوم و أشوف وصفهم




صح .. فيه جدول بالكتااب مررره خطير يلخص لك شابتر 6بجدول صفحـ 123 بالإصدار الثامن

إن شااء الله يفيدكم ..

وإن شاااء الله يطلع الاختبار سهــل ..

خلي نرووق ونوخر التوتر شوي وندعي وربي يوفقــناا قلب2



صح بناات تشابتر 7 وش أخبااره :| ؟! اللي خلصته تعلمنا وش يبيله ..

haya 08
15th April 2009, 11:56 AM
دكتورة هند ..ال Cytosol هو نفسه ال Cytoplasm .. يعني السيتوبلازم


* بناات .. عادي لاتخافون ولاتهنقون إذا جتكم كلمه مالقيتو معناها .. بس احفظزها زي ماهي

وبالتوفيق (f)

M!shoo ~
15th April 2009, 02:16 PM
فديو حلو يشرح لك الفرق بين الـ diffusion والـ osmosis
بالتفصيل الممل .... !

YouTube - Osmosis & diffusion (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VbMShSStxSw&feature=related)

YouTube - Osmosis & diffusion ii (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bnzVzfP-Ugg&feature=related)

YouTube - Osmosis & diffusion iii (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N07FPgcdiho&feature=related)

حلوة للي طفش من القراية مثلي ض1

GiRl SpIrIt
15th April 2009, 04:41 PM
أختبرنا اليوم الاحيااء

مره كان حلو وسهل 45 سوال 30 أختيار 15 صح وخطا
بس مركز على الاشياء الدقيقه مره مره في الصح والخطا

بس احسن شي كل 3 اغلاط بدرجه

بالتوفيق....



هذا كان كلام واحد من اللي اختبروا اليوم

(( اولااد ))


عقبــال اختبارنــــا ض2 قلب2

بالتوفيق حبايبي قلب2

M!shoo ~
15th April 2009, 08:15 PM
^
^
هذي السلايدات
http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/73101/Documents/106-Zoo.zip
\
هدّوا ... وإن شاء الله يمديكم تخلصون (F)
عقبال الـ A+ للجميع

*may
15th April 2009, 08:16 PM
^^^^^^
ما انصحك فيها لانو لاحظت فيها اشياء غير الي عندنا

fahad m
16th April 2009, 12:56 AM
اخواتي الطالبات الي يبي يذاكر بمتعة ترا من السلايدات ملونة انا عندي سي دي وهو الي كنت اذاكر منه لانه ملون وحلوو وفي حركات مثلا كيف يدخل الفيروس للخلية مجسمات تتحرك ونصيحة السلايدات افضل نصيحة مجرب.

الله يوفقكم

اخوكم/فهد

التوقيع

قــــــدري لـــــيل الدمووع----- وافهــــمي معنــــى الخضووع

عالمة المستقبل
16th April 2009, 01:49 AM
بنات دعواتكي لكم ...الله يوفقكم بكرا ويسهله عليكم ..

صدقوني راح يكون سهل بس لاتوتروا ..الحين أسئلته مرة حلوة صدقوني

بنات من جد مرة أسفة أني مانبهتكم عن أسئلة الحين والفيز الي عطيتها (عاشقة القمم) وهي نزلتها بالكوبي الي عند جامعة الرياض لان الكوبي سنتر الي بالملز رفضوا يأخذونها ..

هي على العموم نموذج واحد حين ونماذج مررة كثيرة للفيز وخاصة لدفعتنا مع الحل فنصيحة من أختكم من جد لاتنسون تاخذونهاقبل أختبار الفيز ..

بالتوفيق وبشرونا ..

fahad m
16th April 2009, 04:14 AM
الاختبااار ياخواااتي سهل جدااا والله ولاتتذمرروون حنا اختبرنا الثلاثاء الماضي والاختبار حلوو مررة وانشالله يبي يجيكم سهل واسهل منا بعد

اخوكم/فهد
التوقيع

وتخطـــــت فرحة القيــــا كـــابرق ---- وسمــــانا اظلمـــــت بعــــد التمـــــاعي

طموحي الجنون
16th April 2009, 06:36 AM
اسئلة السنوات السابقة

هي نفسها اللي بالسي دي

اللي تسال غن مقارنات

هذا حلي عاد ان شاء الله يكون صح

انتي خرفي اي شئ لانه بس طالب مقارنةوحدة

واصلا اسئلة زي كذا ماتجي



Q4:

ميتوكندريا وكلور بلاستد ماحليته

لان كلورو بلاستد ما اخذناها



ليزومس قلت انها ديكسوفي درجس والسموم

بينما بيروكسمويس ديكتسوفي الكحول



اس اي ار مافيها رايبسوم

ار اي ار فيها بوند رايبسوم اللي اتاش تو نيكلور انفيلوب من برا



سيلا قوتها عمودية عليها

فلجيلا قوتها متوازية عليها



جلوكوز الدهايد

فركتوز كيتون

نيكلود موجودة بالبكروتيك سيل

نيكلوس موجودة بالاي كريوتك سيل



جلايكوجين بالانيميل سيل

ستارش بالبلانت سيل

دعوااااتكم

ربي يوفقنا جميعا

تحياتي

طموحي الجنون

Caffeine
16th April 2009, 11:20 AM
حسافة السهر

والتعب

:0

يارب تخميني يطلع صح :1( ~

زهرة التوليب
16th April 2009, 11:21 AM
والله تعبت
بس ماحليت مره حلو يعني

ربي ييسر ان شاء الله ونعوض

خصوصا الفصل الرابع يجيب المرض

Reborn ~
16th April 2009, 11:22 AM
منجد ض2

ابداع منقطع النظير متفاوت الابعاد ض2 > خرفت ياقلبي علي :1(

هو كان مدري وش يحس به ض2

قصدي مدري شيحسون به لمن حطو الأسئله هاذي : \

الله يعين

انشالله عالأقل تطلع صح بالصدفه < :p :p أملها الوحيد ..

.
.
.

(f)
.

الدكتوره هند
16th April 2009, 11:32 AM
اغلب حلي تخمين يعني يمكن جبت العيد ويمكن لا
احس الاسئله كان يبيلها تركيز شوي بس الوقت مررره قليل ماكان يسمح انوا نركز توني واصله في الصفحه الرابعه الاتقول باقي ربع ساعه
يالله ان شاء الله نعوضها في الامتحانات الجايه....

saяa
16th April 2009, 11:37 AM
الاختبار بشكل عام كان يميل للسهولة بس كان يبي له تركيز على العموم هو كله 15 درجة والاختبار فيه 45 سؤال يعني كل 3 اخطاء بدرجة روقو يا حلوين

(f)

عالمة المستقبل
16th April 2009, 11:58 AM
أسئلة الحين دائما سهلة بس يبغا لها تركيز يعني وانتي تذاكرين تفهمين بس ماتحفظين (الحين مايبغا له حفظ) بعدين دائما المد الاول والثاني 45 سؤال والفاينل 100 سؤال فبرمجوا نفسكم على كذا ومعوضين راحت 15 باقي 85 درجة ...

`·.·``·.Muneerah
16th April 2009, 12:08 PM
بنات روقوا

وبتلقون درجاتكم عاليه ان شاء الله

وبتلقون أن 3/4 اللي يتشكون هنا ويقوولن حلنا تخمين حلو كويس بس عادتهم بعد الأختبار يتكلمون كذا يمكن :D

خلو الموضوع مرتب لإستفساراتكم الجايه بالأختبار , , وروحوا استمتعوا بما تبقى من الويك إند

Dr.LaMoOo
16th April 2009, 03:12 PM
الحمدلله كان الاختبار جيد بس يحتاج للتركيز


اللي ماحل قدامه الاختبارات الجايه يعوض فيها ان شاء الله :)

يعطيكم العافيه جميعا

(f)

fahad m
16th April 2009, 07:42 PM
وبعدين الاولاد سمعت انهم شابترين كان اختبارهم صحيح ؟< اذا صحيح غش مس4





اختي بس تصحيح للخطأ ليس شابترين فقط للشباب بل 6 شابتراات فقط تصيح للمعلوومة

وتقبلي المرور


اخوك/ فهد
التوقيع

وتخطـــــت فرحـــــة اللقيـــــا كـــابررق-------- وسمــــــانا اظلمـــــت بعد التمـــــاعي

مس فوووشيا
17th April 2009, 07:56 PM
بنااااااااااات بييييييييييييب طاااااااااااااااااااط
لقيت عند الاولاد صفحه خطييييييييره
http://www.cksu.com/vb/t135360/
ادخلوا عليها ودعواتكم للجميع
وموفقات حبيباتي

سارا ~
18th April 2009, 10:55 PM
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته ،،

أخبآركم قلب2 ؟؟

هذه الملفات الموجوده في سي دي الحين العملي ^^

http://www.rofof.com/dw.png (http://www.rofof.com/4hkvgp18/Cd.html)


* إذا في احد يبغاني ارفع النظري ,, اعطوني خبر =)

دعوآتكم ,,

=)

Dr.LaMoOo
18th April 2009, 10:59 PM
بنات اختبار الحين العملي تعرفون كيف راح تجي اسئله الاختبار ؟؟وكيف نذاكره يعني بس نذاكر الرسمات ؟؟؟

راح يجي لك سلايدات وتتعرفين ع الجزء المطلوب منك

وكمان اسئله تجاوبين عليها ورسم بعد

هذا اللي اعرفه :)


اللي عنده زياده ياليت يفيدنا

Dr.Tofi san
18th April 2009, 11:03 PM
طيب يا حلوين متى الإختبار العملي ؟؟؟؟

Dr.Tamara
19th April 2009, 03:43 PM
اختبار الفيزياء غيروه راح يكون يوم الخميس بين اول اسبوع و ثاني اسبوع بعد الاجازة
فما راح يعارض الاحياء العملي =)

Dr.Pain
19th April 2009, 08:42 PM
السلام عليكم دكتوره لموو
اليوم بالمعمل حكو لنا عن امتحان العملي
تقول أستاذتنا بأنه راح يكون في
*رسمه وحده عليها خمس درجات
**وخمسة عشر رسمه على كل رسمه
فقرة تعرفي .. والفقره الثانيه والثالثه
***عباره عن اسئله نظريه تختلف درجتها
لكن ما أتذكر بالضبط كم؟؟
هذا اللي حبيت اضيفه وإذا كان في شيء غلط
فأرجو المعذرهas076
وبالتوفيق للجميعياااااارب

Dr.Tofi san
19th April 2009, 10:17 PM
طيب متـــــــــــى الإختبار ؟؟؟

Dr.Tamara
19th April 2009, 10:20 PM
الاسبوع الثاني بعد الاجازة
كل شعبة على حسب اليوم و الوقت اللي عندهم فيه عملي =)

Dr.Tofi san
19th April 2009, 10:26 PM
مررررررررررررره شكرا يعطيك ربي العافيه


أدري أني غثيثه وأسئلتي كثرت <<< بس إلى أي درس ؟؟؟؟

haya 08
20th April 2009, 12:02 AM
اختبـار العملي .. في جزئية الشرائح .. يعني في كل اللي أخذناه قبل مز1

وراح يكون بالعملي اللي في الأسبوع الأول بعد البريك مراجـعة وراح يوضحون لنا كيف الأسئلة ..

وعشان كذا تقول استاذتنا ذاكروا للمراجعه كأنكم تذاكرون للاختبار ..



<<< ياكثري ض2

ســـــآرة
20th April 2009, 06:59 AM
السلااام عليكم ...

بنااات أنا طالبة في الكليات الصحية تبع جامعة الأميرة نورة و امتحاننا الأحيا بعد الإجازة و حااولت افتحه واذااكره لكن ما عرررررفت ما قدرت اربط العبارات ببعضها وافهم الموضوع تكفووون علمونا كيف ذاكرتوا و حنا منهجنا نفس منهجهم بالتمام ومعلمتننا درست هذا المنهج بجامعة الملك سعود يعني اتوقع حتى الأسئلة رااح تجينا مثل ما جتكم ....

اتمنى ما تبخلون علي بردودكم و و نصايحكم و تساعودنــــآآ ...

Dr.Tamara
20th April 2009, 01:57 PM
عن نفسي درست من السلايدات و اسئلة السنوات اللي فات و اسئلة ال CD =)
و اهم شي افهمي المنهج !! ركزي على الفهم
الاسئلة تجي فهم ! يعني اذا فاهمة تحلين ,, بس اذا حافظة بتحسنه صعب

موفقة :ورده:

Rafif
7th May 2009, 05:55 AM
هذي نماذج لامتحان بايو العملي
من ويب سايت أ هناء
وأ. تغريد
حتلقوا 3نماذج لفيرست ميد تيرم
>>هم بالاساس 2
بس فيه واحد مضاف اليه كم كلمة
و1 سيكند ميد تيرم
وفيه ملفين مدري ايش هم بس اتوقع
للسيكند ميد تيرم احتفظوا فيها

النماذج Here (http://www.cksu.com/vb/uploaded/29892/1241664694.zip)
Click

+




أسماء السلايدات من المراجعة وصلتني إيميل مز1

لكن انتبهوا ممكن تكون بعض التسميات ناقصة..
أرجعوا لاسم كل سلايد في السي دي عشان لا تنقصوا ع الفاضي..


1)Squamous Epithelium Cell.
2) Plant Cell.
3) Bascillus Bacteria.
4) Coccus Bacteria.
5) Renal corpsul in cotex of kidney .
6) Cuboidal Epithelium Cell in collecting tubules.
7)Columnar Epithelium Cell in Stomach.
8) Cuboidal Epithelium Cell in Thyroid Gland.
9)T.S in Spinal cord.
10) T.S in Hyaline cartilage.
11) T.S in Connective Tissue.
12) T.S in Connective Tissue.
13) Neuron (cell body) in Grey Matter of Spinal Cord.
14) White Matter of Spinal Cord.
15)Interclated Disc in Cardiac Muscle.
16) T.S in Smooth Muscle.
17) T.S in Skeletal Muscle.
18) T.S in Artery and Vein.
19) T.S in Artery.
20) T.S in Vein.
21) T.S in Skeletal Muscle.
22) T.S in Kidney.
23)Muscularis in T.S of Oesophagus.
24)Mucosa in T.S of Oesophagus.
25)T.S of Oesophagus.
26) Muscularis in T.S of Stomach.
27)Peptic Cells in Mucosa in T.S of Stomach.
28)Oxyntic Cells in Mucosa in T.S of Stomach.
29)Mucosa in T.S of Stomach.
30) T.S of Stomach.
31) Lydy cells in seminiferous tubule of testis.
32) spermatid in seminiferous tubule of testis.
33) sperm in seminiferous tubule of testis.
34)primary spermatocyte in seminiferous tubule of testis.
35) spermatogonia type A in seminiferous tubule of testis.
36) spermatogonia type B in seminiferous tubule of testis.
37)T.S in seminiferous tubule of testis.
38)Telophase in Mitosis of plant.
39)Anaphasein Mitosis of plant.
40)Metaphase in Mitosis of plant.
41)prophase in Mitosis of plant.
42) prophase in Mitosis of animal.
43) Metaphase in Mitosis of animal.
44) Anaphasein Mitosis of animal.
45) Telophase in Mitosis of animal.
46)Portal area in T.S of Liver.
47)Central Vein in T.S of Liver.
48)T.S in Liver.
49)Prophase in Meiosis 1 of Plant.
50) Metaphase in Meiosis 1 of Plant.
51) Anaphase in Meiosis 1 of Plant.
52)Telophase in Meiosis 1 of Plant.
53)Telophase in Meiosis 2 of Plant.
54)Anaphase in Meiosis 2 of Plant.
55)Metaphase in Meiosis 2 of Plant.
56)prophase in Meiosis 2 of plant.





موفقين
:27: ن2

Rafif
7th May 2009, 06:24 AM
ياحلوات ممكن وحده تنزل الرسمه حقت skeletal muscle
ان توني اكتشف اني ما رسمتها..

http://www.cksu.com/vb/uploaded/29892/1241666769.jpg

ن2

Dr.Tofi san
10th May 2009, 10:09 PM
بنـــــــــات متــــــــــــــى إختبار الفاينل أحياء ؟؟؟


<<< أحد عنــــــــــده خبــــــــــر !!!

مس فوووشيا
10th May 2009, 10:38 PM
الميد الثاني 4/6
الفاينل 24/6
هجري
بالتوفيق

*may
12th May 2009, 05:28 PM
مرحبا بنات

لو سمحتوا متى حيكون اختبار الاحياء العملي الثاني "التشريح" ؟؟؟

Dr.Tofi san
12th May 2009, 08:48 PM
في 17 - 6

Dr.LaMoOo
13th May 2009, 06:22 PM
أنتهت اختبارات اللاب :)

أتمنى أن الجميع عمل زين فيها

واللي ماتوفق قدامه الاختبار الثاني

وراح نحذف الردود اللي تتعلق بالاختبار هذا لاننا ماراح نختبر فيه مره ثانيه

(f)

haya 08
14th May 2009, 12:34 AM
.. بنات .. لاتنسون الأشياء اللي طلبوها منناا في اللاب


أدوات تشريح :هي:

كمامات

قلفز

وطبعاً اللاب كوب

بالتوفيق قلب2

joory
14th May 2009, 04:30 AM
بناات وين نلاقي ادوات التشريح ؟؟

haya 08
14th May 2009, 12:53 PM
^

مدري بس البنات يقولون فيه بشارع الضباب محلات معدات مدري مستلزمات طبيه .. تلقينه فيهاا

ووو بعد البقاله اللي في الملز فيهاا

(f)

أمــووونــه
14th May 2009, 06:54 PM
يقولون نزلت درجات العملي:شف::شف:



وين نلاقيها


اللي عنده معلومه الله يعافيه ترد

Dr.LaMoOo
15th May 2009, 02:06 PM
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
تلاقينها بموقع المعيده حقتك
:)

Dr.italya10
16th May 2009, 07:49 PM
متاااكدين ميني مااركت حقت الملز فيها مااابغى اتورط بكره !!

طموحي الجنون
16th May 2009, 08:20 PM
امتحان السيكند ميد تيرم

حيكون الخميس

28-5-2009

بشابتر 8,9 (5.16) ,17

اللي هم

5-Chap 8-Metabolism

6-Chap 9-Cellular Respiration

7-Chap 5,16-DNA Replication

8-Chap 17-From gene to protein

بالتوفيق جميعا

=)

Dr.Tofi san
16th May 2009, 10:50 PM
ممكن موقع الأستاذه ريم ؟؟؟


أبغى أشوف درجتي الأحياء العملي

DR. Hano6a
17th May 2009, 05:37 PM
انا بعد ابي موقع الاستاذه مزمل خاطري اشوف درجتي as076

.. ~ LaLLoO ~ ..
17th May 2009, 10:26 PM
إذا اسمها ريم العجمي

فهذا موقعها

موقع أ/ ريم العجمي (http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/ReemAlajmi/default.aspx)

Bitoo
17th May 2009, 11:04 PM
^
مالقيت فيه شيء..

طيب مجموعه 13 و 3 نزلت درجاتهم اصلا..!!

اذا نازلة احد يعرف اسم استاذة حصةالكامل المعيدة اللي عند مجموعه 13 و 3..!

طموحي الجنون
23rd May 2009, 05:21 PM
للي ماوصلهم ايميل مني

7

السلام عليكم بنات

تحت شعار لايلدغ المؤمن من الجحر مرتين

وبحكم انه فيرست ميد تيرم الحين

جابولنا اسئلة كثير من سي دي الكتاب

فجمعتها لكم للشابترس اللي داخله

معانا بالسيكند ميد تيرم



http://up3.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/5/23/06/hn23u06sv.zip/jpg (http://up3.m5zn.com/download-2009-5-23-06-hn23u06sv.zip)

ملاحظة:: الاسئلة +الاجوبة

موفقات جميعا

ودعواااااااااتكم

تحياااتي

طموحي الجنون

طموحي الجنون
24th May 2009, 07:49 PM
بنات ب سي دي اللي اعطونا اياه

تبع المحاضرات فيه نموذج امتحان للسيكند ميد تيرم

موفقات جميعا

=)

الدكتوره هند
24th May 2009, 07:57 PM
الله يوفقك ويحقق الي بالك يارب..شكرا طموحي الجنون..

طيب ممكن طلب صعنون تقدر وحده ترفع الملف على مركز تحميل ثاني لان هاذا مايشتغل عندي..

`·.·``·.Muneerah
25th May 2009, 12:15 AM
السكند ميد تيرم قلب2 كانت درجاتنا أعلى مو لان الأسئله أسهل لأننا عرفنا كيف ندرسله قلب2

أستغلوه قلب2 قلب2 بيعوضكم بأذن الله قلب2


طموحي الله يعطيك على قد نيتك يا بطله (f)

ســارهــ
25th May 2009, 07:42 PM
http://up3.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/5/25/09/ntsg1pcg8.zip/jpg (http://up3.m5zn.com/download-2009-5-25-09-ntsg1pcg8.zip)

طموحي الجنون
25th May 2009, 09:59 PM
للي مازبط معاهم

رفعته ع مركز ثاني

__________ ____ ____ ____________ ______________ ______ ________.zip - 2.26MB (http://www.zshare.net/download/60504933500a3feb/)

دعواتكم

=)

MiSs Roro
26th May 2009, 03:20 PM
الله يوفقكم يارب وعقبال الـ+A

بنــآت كل مافتحته قال خطأ ومدري كيف
ياليت تحطون الاسئلهـ هنـآ
:)

طموحي الجنون
26th May 2009, 03:54 PM
الله يوفقكم يارب وعقبال الـ+A

بنــآت كل مافتحته قال خطأ ومدري كيف
ياليت تحطون الاسئلهـ هنـآ
:)

ايش المشكلة بالضبط؟؟

يمكن لان الملف كبير وفيه 20صورة

شوفي اذا الوورد عندك عربي

تحت الادوات فيه شئ مكتوب

تحذير امان لقد تم تعطيل بعض المحتوى النشط

حطي خيارات ثم تمكين>>زي لما كنا نمتحن الاكسيس

>ذكريات التقن

ع فكرة اذا عملتي هالشئ حيعلق عليك شوي

بس انتظريه

عموما انا تعمدت انزل ملف بكبره مب بس الاسئلة

لان فيه بعض الاسئلة بها رسمات فمابتطلع هنا

بس ولايهمكم مو شئ اكوس من ولاشئ

هذا شابتر8



Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism





Activities Quiz



1 . Which of these is exhibiting kinetic energy? (Activity: Energy Transformations)

a rock on a mountain ledge

the high-energy phosphate bonds of a molecule of ATP

a person sitting on a couch while watching TV

an archer with a flexed bow

a space station orbiting Earth


2 . "Conservation of energy" refers to the fact that _____. (Activity: Energy Transformations)

the entropy of the universe is always increasing

if you conserve energy you will not be as tired

the net amount of disorder is always increasing

no chemical reaction is 100 percent efficient

energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another


3 . Chemical energy is a form of _____ energy. (Activity: Energy Transformations)

kinetic energy

heat energy

potential

motion

entropic


4 . In your body, what process converts the chemical energy found in glucose into the chemical energy found in ATP? (Activity: Energy Transformations)

potentiation

cellular respiration

digestion

anabolism

redox


5 . Which of these are by-products of cellular respiration? (Activity: Energy Transformations)

ATP, carbon dioxide, and water

glucose, carbon dioxide, and water

ATP and carbon dioxide

heat, carbon dioxide, and water

carbon dioxide and water


6 . Which of these is ATP? (Activity: The Structure of ATP)

















7 . What type of reaction breaks the bonds that join the phosphate groups in an ATP molecule? (Activity: The Structure of ATP)

anabolism

hydrolysis

dehydration decomposition

dehydration synthesis

entropic


8 . In this reaction _____. (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)


the products have less potential energy than the reactants

CD is a product

entropy has decreased

the products have been rearranged to form reactants

AC is a reactant


9 . In this reaction _____. (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)


the chemical energy of the products is greater than that of the reactants

the kinetic energy of the reactants is less than that of the products

entropy has decreased

disorder has decreased

heat has been released to the environment


10 . The reaction A --> B + C + heat is released in a(n) _____ reaction. (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)

endergonic

dehydration synthesis

exergonic

exchange

anabolic


11 . A(n) _____ reaction occurs spontaneously. (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)

anabolic

endergonic

chemical

exergonic

kinetic


12 . Which of these reactions requires a net input of energy from its surroundings? (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)

exergonic

hydrolysis

endergonic

ATP --> ADP + P

catabolic


13 . In cells, what is usually the immediate source of energy for an endergonic reaction? (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)

glucose

as spontaneous reactions, endergonic reactions do not need an addition of energy

ADP

ATP

sugar


14 . The reaction ADP + P --> ATP is a(n) _____ reaction. (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)

hydrolysis

exergonic

chemical

endergonic

spontaneous


15 . The energy for an endergonic reaction comes from a(n) _____ reaction. (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)

anabolic

exergonic

synthesis

ADP + P --> ATP

glucose + glucose --> maltose


16 . What is the fate of the phosphate group that is removed when ATP is converted to ADP? (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)

It is acquired by a reactant in an endergonic reaction.

It is used to convert an ATP into an AQP.

It is acquired by a reactant in a spontaneous reaction.

It is acquired by a reactant in an exergonic reaction.

It is broken down into one phosphorus and four oxygen atoms.


17 . This graph illustrates a(n) _____ reaction. (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)



spontaneous

endergonic

hydrolysis

exergonic

catabolic


18 . Select the INCORRECT association. (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)

potential energy ... positional energy

exergonic ... uphill

enzyme ... protein

exergonic ... spontaneous

kinetic energy ... motion


19 . What is energy coupling? (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)

a description of the energetic relationship between the reactants and products in an exergonic reaction

the use of an enzyme to reduce EA

a barrier to the initiation of a reaction

the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction

the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP + P


20 . Enzymes are _____. (Activity: How Enzymes Work)

carbohydrates

minerals

lipids

nucleic acids

proteins


21 . Enzymes work by _____. (Activity: How Enzymes Work)

adding a phosphate group to a reactant

decreasing the potential energy difference between reactant and product

adding energy to a reaction

increasing the potential energy difference between reactant and product

reducing EA


22 . An enzyme _____. (Activity: How Enzymes Work)

is a source of energy for endergonic reactions

is an organic catalyst

increases the EA of a reaction

is a inorganic catalyst

can bind to nearly any molecule


23 . What name is given to the reactants in an enzymatically catalyzed reaction? (Activity: How Enzymes Work)

EA

products

active sites

reactors

substrate


24 . As a result of its involvement in a reaction, an enzyme _____. (Activity: How Enzymes Work)

loses a phosphate group

permanently alters its shape.

loses energy

is unchanged

is used up


25 . What is the correct label for "A"? (Activity: How Enzymes Work)



ATP

energy of activation

substrate energy

enzyme energy

uphill







©2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


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Of 25 questions, here are your results:
0 correct or not graded
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25 unanswered
Submitted on Sat May 16 20:27:24 UTC+0300 2009
________________________________________
1. Not Answered Which of these is exhibiting kinetic energy? (Activity: Energy Transformations)
The Correct Answer: a space station orbiting Earth

________________________________________
2. Not Answered "Conservation of energy" refers to the fact that _____. (Activity: Energy Transformations)
The Correct Answer: energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another

________________________________________
3. Not Answered Chemical energy is a form of _____ energy. (Activity: Energy Transformations)
The Correct Answer: potential

________________________________________
4. Not Answered In your body, what process converts the chemical energy found in glucose into the chemical energy found in ATP? (Activity: Energy Transformations)
The Correct Answer: cellular respiration

________________________________________
5. Not Answered Which of these are by-products of cellular respiration? (Activity: Energy Transformations)
The Correct Answer: heat, carbon dioxide, and water

________________________________________
6. Not Answered Which of these is ATP? (Activity: The Structure of ATP)
The Correct Answer:



________________________________________
7. Not Answered What type of reaction breaks the bonds that join the phosphate groups in an ATP molecule? (Activity: The Structure of ATP)
The Correct Answer: hydrolysis

________________________________________
8. Not Answered In this reaction _____. (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)

The Correct Answer: the products have less potential energy than the reactants

________________________________________
9. Not Answered In this reaction _____. (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)

The Correct Answer: heat has been released to the environment

________________________________________
10. Not Answered The reaction A --> B + C + heat is released in a(n) _____ reaction. (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)
The Correct Answer: exergonic

________________________________________
11. Not Answered A(n) _____ reaction occurs spontaneously. (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)
The Correct Answer: exergonic

________________________________________
12. Not Answered Which of these reactions requires a net input of energy from its surroundings? (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)
The Correct Answer: endergonic

________________________________________
13. Not Answered In cells, what is usually the immediate source of energy for an endergonic reaction? (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)
The Correct Answer: ATP

________________________________________
14. Not Answered The reaction ADP + P --> ATP is a(n) _____ reaction. (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)
The Correct Answer: endergonic

________________________________________
15. Not Answered The energy for an endergonic reaction comes from a(n) _____ reaction. (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)
The Correct Answer: exergonic

________________________________________
16. Not Answered What is the fate of the phosphate group that is removed when ATP is converted to ADP? (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)
The Correct Answer: It is acquired by a reactant in an endergonic reaction.

________________________________________
17. Not Answered This graph illustrates a(n) _____ reaction. (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)


The Correct Answer: endergonic

________________________________________
18. Not Answered Select the INCORRECT association. (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)
The Correct Answer: exergonic ... uphill

________________________________________
19. Not Answered What is energy coupling? (Activity: Chemical Reactions and ATP)
The Correct Answer: the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction

________________________________________
20. Not Answered Enzymes are _____. (Activity: How Enzymes Work)
The Correct Answer: proteins

________________________________________
21. Not Answered Enzymes work by _____. (Activity: How Enzymes Work)
The Correct Answer: reducing EA

________________________________________
22. Not Answered An enzyme _____. (Activity: How Enzymes Work)
The Correct Answer: is an organic catalyst

________________________________________
23. Not Answered What name is given to the reactants in an enzymatically catalyzed reaction? (Activity: How Enzymes Work)
The Correct Answer: substrate

________________________________________
24. Not Answered As a result of its involvement in a reaction, an enzyme _____. (Activity: How Enzymes Work)
The Correct Answer: is unchanged

________________________________________
25. Not Answered What is the correct label for "A"? (Activity: How Enzymes Work)


The Correct Answer: energy of activation


....


Home > 8: An Introduction to Metabolism > Chapter Quiz


Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism





Chapter Quiz



1 . Which of the following correctly states the relationship between anabolic and catabolic pathways? (Concept 8.1 ) [Hint]

Degradation of organic molecules by anabolic pathways provides the energy to drive catabolic pathways.

Energy derived from catabolic pathways is used to drive the breakdown of organic molecules in anabolic pathways.

Anabolic pathways synthesize more complex organic molecules using the energy derived from catabolic pathways.

Catabolic pathways produce usable cellular energy by synthesizing more complex organic molecules.

The flow of energy between catabolic and anabolic pathways is reversible.


2 . Which of the following situations does not represent a transformation of one type of energy to another? (Concept 8.1 ) [Hint]

the burning of gasoline in a car engine to move a car

the production of sugar by photosynthesis

the production of electrical power by damming a river

a collision between one billiard ball and other balls, causing them to move

playing music by putting new batteries in your CD player


3 . Organisms are described as thermodynamically open systems. Which of the following statements is consistent with this description? (Concept 8.1 ) [Hint]

The metabolism of an organism is isolated from its surroundings.

Cells can freely exchange energy and materials with their environment.

Organisms acquire energy from their surroundings.

Heat produced by the organism is conserved in the organism and not lost to the environment.

Because energy must be conserved, organisms constantly recycle energy and thus need no input of energy.


4 . Consider the growth of a farmer's crop over a season. Which of the following correctly states a limitation imposed by the first or second laws of thermodynamics? (Concept 8.1 ) [Hint]

The entropy of the universe must decrease in order to account for the increased entropy associated with plant growth.

The process of photosynthesis produces energy that the plant uses to grow.

In order to obey the first law, the crop must represent an open system.

Growth of the crops must occur spontaneously.

All of the above are correct.


5 . Which of the following states the relevance of the first law of thermodynamics to biology? (Concept 8.1 ) [Hint]

The total energy taken in by an organism must be greater than the total energy stored or released by the organism.

Energy can be freely transformed among different forms as long as the total energy is conserved.

Photosynthetic organisms produce energy in sugars from sunlight.

All organisms must produce some heat as a result of the processes of life.

Living organisms must increase the entropy of their surroundings.


6 . Which is the most abundant form of energy in a cell? (Concept 8.1 ) [Hint]

chemical and electrical gradients

mechanical energy

heat

kinetic energy

chemical energy


7 . Which of the following is an example of the second law of thermodynamics as it applies to biological reactions? (Concept 8.1 ) [Hint]

The aerobic respiration of one molecule of glucose produces six molecules each of carbon dioxide and water.

All types of cellular respiration produce ATP.

Cellular respiration releases some energy as heat.

The first and second choices are correct.

The first, second, and third choices are correct.


8 . According to the second law of thermodynamics, which of the following is true? (Concept 8.1 ) [Hint]

Energy conversions increase the order in the universe.

The total amount of energy in the universe is constant.

The decrease in entropy associated with life must be compensated for by an increase in entropy in the environment that life occurs in.

The entropy of the universe is constantly decreasing.

All reactions produce some heat.


9 . If the entropy of a living organism is decreasing, which of the following is most likely to be occurring simultaneously? (Concept 8.2 ) [Hint]

The entropy of the organism's environment must also be decreasing.

Heat is being used by the organism as a source of energy.

The first law of thermodynamics is being violated.

Energy input into the organism must be occurring in order to drive the decrease in entropy.

In this situation, the second law of thermodynamics must not apply.


10 . Which one of the following has the most free energy per molecule? (Concept 8.2 ) [Hint]

a sugar molecule

an amino acid molecule

a starch molecule

a fatty acid molecule

a cholesterol molecule


11 . Which part of the equation G = H - TS tells you if a process is spontaneous? (Concept 8.2 ) [Hint]

G

H

S

TS

All of these values reveal the direction in which a reaction will go.


12 . If, during a process, the system becomes more ordered, then _____. (Concept 8.2 ) [Hint]

G is negative

G is positive

H is negative

H is positive

S is negative


13 . When one molecule is broken down into six component molecules, which one of the following will always be true? (Concept 8.2 ) [Hint]

An input of free energy is needed.

G is positive.

H is negative.

S is positive.

S is negative.


14 . From the equation G = H - TS it is clear that _____. (Concept 8.2 ) [Hint]

a decrease in the system's total energy will increase the probability of spontaneous change

increasing the entropy of a system will increase the probability of spontaneous change

increasing the temperature of a system will increase the probability of spontaneous change

The first and second choices are correct.

The first three choices are correct.


15 . What must be true if the reaction AB + CD  AC + BD occurs spontaneously? (Concept 8.2 ) [Hint]

The H of the reaction must be negative.

The S of the reaction must be positive.

The reaction must be endergonic.

The difference between H and TS must be negative.

All of the above are true.


16 . An exergonic (spontaneous) reaction is a chemical reaction that _____. (Concept 8.2 ) [Hint]

occurs only when an enzyme or other catalyst is present

cannot occur outside of a living cell

releases energy when proceeding in the forward direction

is common in anabolic pathways

leads to a decrease in the entropy of the universe


17 . Which of the following reactions would be endergonic? (Concept 8.2 ) [Hint]

HCl  H+ + Cl-

C6H12O6 + 6 O2  6 CO2 + 6 H2O

ATP  ADP + Pi

glucose + fructose  sucrose

all of the above


18 . Metabolic pathways in cells are typically far from equilibrium. Which of the following processes tend to keep these pathways away from equilibrium? (Concept 8.2 ) [Hint]

the continuous removal of the products of a pathway to be used in other reactions

an input of free energy from outside the pathway

an input of heat from the environment

The first and second choices are correct.

The first, second, and third choices are correct.


19 . Which of the following is not an example of the cellular work accomplished with the free energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP? (Concept 8.3 ) [Hint]

mechanical work, such as the beating of cilia

transport work, such as the active transport of an ion into a cell

chemical work, such as the synthesis of new protein

the production of heat, which raises the temperature of the cell

all of the above


20 . In general, the hydrolysis of ATP drives cellular work by _____. (Concept 8.3 ) [Hint]

changing to ADP and phosphate

releasing free energy that can be coupled to other reactions

releasing heat

acting as a catalyst

lowering the free energy of the reaction


21 . Which of the following statements correctly describes some aspect of ATP hydrolysis being used to drive the active transport of an ion into the cell against the ion's concentration gradient? (Concepts 8.2 and 8.3 ) [Hint]

ATP is acting as a transport protein to facilitate the movement of the ion across the plasma membrane.

The hydrolysis of ATP is an endergonic reaction, and the active transport is an exergonic reaction.

Neither of these reactions is spontaneous.

This is an example of energy coupling.

Both reactions are spontaneous because they result in an increase in entropy of the system.


22 . Which compound could be most easily modified to form ATP? (Concept 8.3 ) [Hint]

the RNA nucleotide adenosine

the amino acid tryptophan

the DNA nucleotide adenosine

the nitrogenous base adenine

the monosaccharide ribose


23 . Much of the suitability of ATP as an energy intermediary is related to the instability of the bonds between the phosphate groups. These bonds are unstable because _____. (Concept 8.3 ) [Hint]

the valence electrons in the phosphorus atom have less energy on average than those of other atoms

the negatively charged phosphate groups vigorously repel one another and the terminal phosphate group is more stable in water than it is in ATP

they are hydrogen bonds, which are only about 10% as strong as covalent bonds

the phosphate groups are polar and are attracted to the water in the cell's interior

the bonds between the phosphate groups are unusually strong and breaking them releases free energy


24 . When 1 mole of ATP is hydrolyzed in a test tube without an enzyme, about twice as much heat is given off as when 1 mole of ATP is hydrolyzed in a cell. Which of the following best explains these observations? (Concept 8.3 ) [Hint]

Cells are less efficient at energy metabolism than reactions that are optimized in a test tube.

The amount of heat released by a reaction has nothing to do with the free energy change of the reaction.

In the cell, the hydrolysis of ATP is coupled to other endergonic reactions.

In cells, ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP and Pi, but in the test tube it is hydrolyzed to carbon dioxide and water.

Cells have the ability to store heat; this cannot happen in a test tube.


25 . What best characterizes the role of ATP in cellular metabolism? (Concept 8.3 ) [Hint]

The release of free energy during the hydrolysis of ATP heats the surrounding environment.

The free energy released by ATP hydrolysis may be coupled to an endergonic process via the formation of a phosphorylated intermediate.

It is catabolized to carbon dioxide and water.

The G associated with its hydrolysis is positive.

The charge on the phosphate group of ATP tends to make the molecule very water-soluble.


26 . The formation of glucose-6-phosphate from glucose is an endergonic reaction and is coupled to which of the following reactions or pathways? (Concept 8.3 ) [Hint]

the conversion of glucose + fructose to make sucrose

the contraction of a muscle cell

the hydrolysis of ATP

the active transport of a phosphate ion into the cell

the formation of ATP from ADP + Pi


27 . A chemical reaction is designated as exergonic rather than endergonic when _____. (Concepts 8.2 and 8.4 ) [Hint]

activation energy is required

the products are less complex than the reactants

activation energy exceeds net energy release

the potential energy of the products is less than the potential energy of the reactants

it absorbs more energy


28 . What do the sign and magnitude of the G of a reaction tell us about the speed of the reaction? (Concepts 8.2 and 8.4 ) [Hint]

The sign determines whether the reaction is spontaneous, and the magnitude determines the speed.

The sign does not matter, but the larger the magnitude of G the faster the reaction.

The sign does not matter, but the smaller the magnitude of G the faster the reaction.

The more negative the G, the faster the reaction is.

Neither the sign nor the magnitude of G have anything to do with the speed of a reaction.


29 . The mechanism of enzyme action is _____. (Concept 8.4 ) [Hint]

providing energy to speed up the rate of the reaction

lowering the energy of activation for a reaction

changing the direction of thermodynamic equilibrium

changing endergonic into exergonic reactions

lowering the free energy change of a reaction


30 . Which of the following statements about enzymes is true? (Concept 8.4 ) [Hint]

Enzymes increase the rate of a reaction by raising the activation energy for reactions.

Enzymes react with their substrate (form chemical bonds) forming an enzyme-substrate complex, which irreversibly alters the enzyme.

Enzymes speed up the rate of the reaction without changing the G for the reaction.

The most efficient enzymes can catalyze reactions in either direction.

The more heat that is added to a reaction, the faster the enzymes will function.


31 . Which of the following statements about enzyme function is correct? (Concept 8.4 ) [Hint]

Enzymes can greatly speed up reactions, but they cannot change the net energy output because they cannot change the activation energy.

Enzymes can change the equilibrium point of reactions, but they cannot speed up reactions because they cannot change the net energy output.

Enzymes can greatly speed up reactions, but they cannot change the activation energy because they cannot change the net energy output.

Enzymes can lower the activation energy of reactions, but they cannot change the equilibrium point because they cannot change the net energy output.

None of the above is correct.


32 . A plot of reaction rate (velocity) against temperature for an enzyme indicates little activity at 10°C and 45°C, with peak activity at 35°C. The most reasonable explanation for the low velocity at 10°C is that _____. (Concept 8.4 ) [Hint]

the hydrogen bonds that define the structure of the enzyme's active site are unstable

the substrate becomes a competitive inhibitor at lower temperature

the enzyme was denatured

the cofactors required by the enzyme system lack the thermal energy required to activate the enzyme

there is too little activation energy available


33 . Which of the following statements about enzymes is incorrect? (Concept 8.4 ) [Hint]

Most enzymes are proteins.

An enzyme is not consumed by the catalytic process.

An enzyme is very specific in terms of which substrate it binds to.

An enzyme lowers the activation energy of a chemical reaction.

All of the above are correct statements about enzymes.


34 . Which of the following statements about the active site of an enzyme is correct? (Concept 8.4 ) [Hint]

The active site has a fixed structure (shape).

Coenzymes are never found in the active site of an enzyme.

The active site may resemble a groove or pocket in the surface of a protein into which the substrate fits.

The structure of the active site is not affected by changes in temperature.

The active site allows the reaction to occur under the same environmental conditions as the reaction without the enzyme.


35 . What is meant by the "induced fit" of an enzyme? (Concept 8.4 ) [Hint]

The substrate can be altered so that it is induced to fit into the enzyme's active site.

The enzyme structure is altered so that it can be induced to fit many different types of substrate.

The presence of the substrate in solution induces the enzyme to slightly change its structure.

The shape of the active site is nearly perfect for specifically binding the enzyme's substrate(s).

The enzyme changes its shape slightly as the substrate binds to it.


36 . Which of the following statements correctly describe(s) the role(s) of heat and temperature in biological reactions? (Concept 8.4 ) [Hint]

Heat from the environment is necessary for substrates to get over the activation energy barrier.

Increasing temperature increases the kinetic energy of the substrates.

Increasing the temperature will increase the rate of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.

The first and second choices are correct.

The first, second, and third choices are correct.


37 . Above a certain substrate concentration, the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction drops as the enzymes become saturated. Which of the following would lead to a faster conversion of substrate into product under these saturated conditions? (Concept 8.4 ) [Hint]

an increase in concentration of enzyme

increasing the temperature by a few degrees

increasing the substrate concentration

The first and second choices are correct.

The first, second, and third choices are correct.


38 . Which of the following environments or actions does not affect the rate of an enzyme reaction? (Concept 8.4 ) [Hint]

heating the enzyme

cooling the enzyme

substrate concentration

pH

all of the above


39 . Enzyme activity is affected by pH because _____. (Concept 8.4 ) [Hint]

most substrates don't function well at high or low pH

high or low pH may disrupt hydrogen bonding or ionic interactions and thus change the shape of the active site

low pH will denature all enzymes

changes in pH can cause loss of cofactors from the enzyme

the binding of hydrogen ions to the enzyme absorbs energy and thus there may not be enough energy to overcome the activation energy barrier


40 . Which of these statements about enzyme inhibitors is true? (Concept 8.4 ) [Hint]

A competitive inhibitor binds to the enzyme at a place that is separate from the active site.

The action of competitive inhibitors may be reversible or irreversible.

A noncompetitive inhibitor does not change the shape of the active site.

When the product of an enzyme or an enzyme sequence acts as its inhibitor, this is known as positive feedback.

Inhibition of enzyme function by compounds that are not substrates is something that only occurs under controlled conditions in the laboratory.


41 . Succinylcholine is structurally almost identical to acetylcholine. If succinylcholine is added to a mixture that contains acetylcholine and the enzyme that hydrolyzes acetylcholine (but not succinylcholine), the rate of acetylcholine hydrolysis is decreased. Subsequent addition of more acetylcholine restores the original rate of acetylcholine hydrolysis. Which of the following correctly explains this observation? (Concept 8.4 ) [Hint]

Succinylcholine must be a competitive inhibitor with acetylcholine.

Succinylcholine must be an allosteric regulator for this enzyme.

The active site must have the wrong configuration to permit succinylcholine binding.

Succinylcholine must be a non-competitive inhibitor.

The activation energy barrier for succinylcholine hydrolysis is higher than for acetylcholine hydrolysis.


42 . The process of stabilizing the structure of an enzyme in its active form by the binding of a molecule is an example of _____. (Concept 8.5 ) [Hint]

feedback inhibition

competitive inhibition

allosteric regulation

non-competitive inhibition

cooperativity


43 . Which, if any, of the following statements is not true about allosteric proteins? (Concept 8.5 ) [Hint]

They are sensitive to environmental conditions.

They are acted on by inhibitors.

They exist in active and inactive conformations.

They can bind to a range of substrates.

All of the above statements are true of allosteric proteins.


44 . The binding of an allosteric inhibitor to an enzyme causes the rate of product formation by the enzyme to decrease. Which of the following best explains why this decrease occurs? (Concept 8.5 ) [Hint]

The allosteric inhibitor binds to the active site, preventing the substrate from binding.

The allosteric inhibitor causes free energy change of the reaction to increase.

The allosteric inhibitor causes a structural change in the enzyme that prevents the substrate from binding at the active site.

The allosteric inhibitor lowers the temperature of the active site.

The allosteric inhibitor binds to the substrate and prevents it from binding at the active site.


45 . Under most conditions, the supply of energy by catabolic pathways is regulated by the demand for energy by anabolic pathways. Considering the role of ATP formation and hydrolysis in energy coupling of anabolic and catabolic pathways, which of the following statements is most likely to be true? (Concept 8.5 ) [Hint]

High levels of ADP act as an allosteric inhibitor of catabolic pathways.

High levels of ATP act as an allosteric activator of anabolic pathways.

High levels of ATP act as an allosteric activator of catabolic pathways.

High levels of ADP act as an allosteric activator of catabolic pathways

High levels of ADP act as an allosteric inhibitor of anabolic pathways.







©2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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Site Title: Campbell Biology
Book's Title: Biology
Book's Author: Campbell and Reece
Quiz Location: 8: An Introduction to Metabolism > Chapter Quiz
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Summary: 0% Correct
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Of 45 questions, here are your sults:
0 correct or not graded
0 incorrect
45 unanswere
Submitted on Sat May 16 20:28:55 UTC+0300 2009
________________________________________
1. Not Answered Which of the following correctly states the relationship between anabolic and catabolic pathways? (Concept 8.1 )
The Correct Answer: Anabolic pathways synthesize more complex organic molecules using the energy derived from catabolic pathways.

________________________________________
2. Not Answered Which of the following situations does not represent a transformation of one type of energy to another? (Concept 8.1 )
The Correct Answer: a collision between one billiard ball and other balls, causing them to move

________________________________________
3. Not Answered Organisms are described as thermodynamically open systems. Which of the following statements is consistent with this description? (Concept 8.1 )
The Correct Answer: Organisms acquire energy from their surroundings.

________________________________________
4. Not Answered Consider the growth of a farmer's crop over a season. Which of the following correctly states a limitation imposed by the first or second laws of thermodynamics? (Concept 8.1 )
The Correct Answer: In order to obey the first law, the crop must represent an open system.

________________________________________
5. Not Answered Which of the following states the relevance of the first law of thermodynamics to biology? (Concept 8.1 )
The Correct Answer: Energy can be freely transformed among different forms as long as the total energy is conserved.

________________________________________
6. Not Answered Which is the most abundant form of energy in a cell? (Concept 8.1 )
The Correct Answer: chemical energy

________________________________________
7. Not Answered Which of the following is an example of the second law of thermodynamics as it applies to biological reactions? (Concept 8.1 )
The Correct Answer: The aerobic respiration of one molecule of glucose produces six molecules each of carbon dioxide and water.

________________________________________
8. Not Answered According to the second law of thermodynamics, which of the following is true? (Concept 8.1 )
The Correct Answer: The decrease in entropy associated with life must be compensated for by an increase in entropy in the environment that life occurs in.

________________________________________
9. Not Answered If the entropy of a living organism is decreasing, which of the following is most likely to be occurring simultaneously? (Concept 8.2 )
The Correct Answer: Energy input into the organism must be occurring in order to drive the decrease in entropy.

________________________________________
10. Not Answered Which one of the following has the most free energy per molecule? (Concept 8.2 )
The Correct Answer: a starch molecule

________________________________________
11. Not Answered Which part of the equation G = H - TS tells you if a process is spontaneous? (Concept 8.2 )
The Correct Answer: G

________________________________________
12. Not Answered If, during a process, the system becomes more ordered, then _____. (Concept 8.2 )
The Correct Answer: S is negative

________________________________________
13. Not Answered When one molecule is broken down into six component molecules, which one of the following will always be true? (Concept 8.2 )
The Correct Answer: S is positive.

________________________________________
14. Not Answered From the equation G = H - TS it is clear that _____. (Concept 8.2 )
The Correct Answer: The first three choices are correct.

________________________________________
15. Not Answered What must be true if the reaction AB + CD  AC + BD occurs spontaneously? (Concept 8.2 )
The Correct Answer: The difference between H and TS must be negative.

________________________________________
16. Not Answered An exergonic (spontaneous) reaction is a chemical reaction that _____. (Concept 8.2 )
The Correct Answer: releases energy when proceeding in the forward direction

________________________________________
17. Not Answered Which of the following reactions would be endergonic? (Concept 8.2 )
The Correct Answer: glucose + fructose  sucrose

________________________________________
18. Not Answered Metabolic pathways in cells are typically far from equilibrium. Which of the following processes tend to keep these pathways away from equilibrium? (Concept 8.2 )
The Correct Answer: The first and second choices are correct.

________________________________________
19. Not Answered Which of the following is not an example of the cellular work accomplished with the free energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP? (Concept 8.3 )
The Correct Answer: the production of heat, which raises the temperature of the cell

________________________________________
20. Not Answered In general, the hydrolysis of ATP drives cellular work by _____. (Concept 8.3 )
The Correct Answer: releasing free energy that can be coupled to other reactions

________________________________________
21. Not Answered Which of the following statements correctly describes some aspect of ATP hydrolysis being used to drive the active transport of an ion into the cell against the ion's concentration gradient? (Concepts 8.2 and 8.3 )
The Correct Answer: This is an example of energy coupling.

________________________________________
22. Not Answered Which compound could be most easily modified to form ATP? (Concept 8.3 )
The Correct Answer: the RNA nucleotide adenosine

________________________________________
23. Not Answered Much of the suitability of ATP as an energy intermediary is related to the instability of the bonds between the phosphate groups. These bonds are unstable because _____. (Concept 8.3 )
The Correct Answer: the negatively charged phosphate groups vigorously repel one another and the terminal phosphate group is more stable in water than it is in ATP

________________________________________
24. Not Answered When 1 mole of ATP is hydrolyzed in a test tube without an enzyme, about twice as much heat is given off as when 1 mole of ATP is hydrolyzed in a cell. Which of the following best explains these observations? (Concept 8.3 )
The Correct Answer: In the cell, the hydrolysis of ATP is coupled to other endergonic reactions.

________________________________________
25. Not Answered What best characterizes the role of ATP in cellular metabolism? (Concept 8.3 )
The Correct Answer: The free energy released by ATP hydrolysis may be coupled to an endergonic process via the formation of a phosphorylated intermediate.

________________________________________
26. Not Answered The formation of glucose-6-phosphate from glucose is an endergonic reaction and is coupled to which of the following reactions or pathways? (Concept 8.3 )
The Correct Answer: the hydrolysis of ATP

________________________________________
27. Not Answered A chemical reaction is designated as exergonic rather than endergonic when _____. (Concepts 8.2 and 8.4 )
The Correct Answer: the potential energy of the products is less than the potential energy of the reactants

________________________________________
28. Not Answered What do the sign and magnitude of the G of a reaction tell us about the speed of the reaction? (Concepts 8.2 and 8.4 )
The Correct Answer: Neither the sign nor the magnitude of G have anything to do with the speed of a reaction.

________________________________________
29. Not Answered The mechanism of enzyme action is _____. (Concept 8.4 )
The Correct Answer: lowering the energy of activation for a reaction

________________________________________
30. Not Answered Which of the following statements about enzymes is true? (Concept 8.4 )
The Correct Answer: Enzymes speed up the rate of the reaction without changing the G for the reaction.

________________________________________
31. Not Answered Which of the following statements about enzyme function is correct? (Concept 8.4 )
The Correct Answer: Enzymes can lower the activation energy of reactions, but they cannot change the equilibrium point because they cannot change the net energy output.

________________________________________
32. Not Answered A plot of reaction rate (velocity) against temperature for an enzyme indicates little activity at 10°C and 45°C, with peak activity at 35°C. The most reasonable explanation for the low velocity at 10°C is that _____. (Concept 8.4 )
The Correct Answer: there is too little activation energy available

________________________________________
33. Not Answered Which of the following statements about enzymes is incorrect? (Concept 8.4 )
The Correct Answer: All of the above are correct statements about enzymes.

________________________________________
34. Not Answered Which of the following statements about the active site of an enzyme is correct? (Concept 8.4 )
The Correct Answer: The active site may resemble a groove or pocket in the surface of a protein into which the substrate fits.

________________________________________
35. Not Answered What is meant by the "induced fit" of an enzyme? (Concept 8.4 )
The Correct Answer: The enzyme changes its shape slightly as the substrate binds to it.

________________________________________
36. Not Answered Which of the following statements correctly describe(s) the role(s) of heat and temperature in biological reactions? (Concept 8.4 )
The Correct Answer: The first and second choices are correct.

________________________________________
37. Not Answered Above a certain substrate concentration, the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction drops as the enzymes become saturated. Which of the following would lead to a faster conversion of substrate into product under these saturated conditions? (Concept 8.4 )
The Correct Answer: The first and second choices are correct.

________________________________________
38. Not Answered Which of the following environments or actions does not affect the rate of an enzyme reaction? (Concept 8.4 )
The Correct Answer: all of the above

________________________________________
39. Not Answered Enzyme activity is affected by pH because _____. (Concept 8.4 )
The Correct Answer: high or low pH may disrupt hydrogen bonding or ionic interactions and thus change the shape of the active site

________________________________________
40. Not Answered Which of these statements about enzyme inhibitors is true? (Concept 8.4 )
The Correct Answer: The action of competitive inhibitors may be reversible or irreversible.

________________________________________
41. Not Answered Succinylcholine is structurally almost identical to acetylcholine. If succinylcholine is added to a mixture that contains acetylcholine and the enzyme that hydrolyzes acetylcholine (but not succinylcholine), the rate of acetylcholine hydrolysis is decreased. Subsequent addition of more acetylcholine restores the original rate of acetylcholine hydrolysis. Which of the following correctly explains this observation? (Concept 8.4 )
The Correct Answer: Succinylcholine must be a competitive inhibitor with acetylcholine.

________________________________________
42. Not Answered The process of stabilizing the structure of an enzyme in its active form by the binding of a molecule is an example of _____. (Concept 8.5 )
The Correct Answer: allosteric regulation

________________________________________
43. Not Answered Which, if any, of the following statements is not true about allosteric proteins? (Concept 8.5 )
The Correct Answer: They can bind to a range of substrates.

________________________________________
44. Not Answered The binding of an allosteric inhibitor to an enzyme causes the rate of product formation by the enzyme to decrease. Which of the following best explains why this decrease occurs? (Concept 8.5 )
The Correct Answer: The allosteric inhibitor causes a structural change in the enzyme that prevents the substrate from binding at the active site.

________________________________________
45. Not Answered Under most conditions, the supply of energy by catabolic pathways is regulated by the demand for energy by anabolic pathways. Considering the role of ATP formation and hydrolysis in energy coupling of anabolic and catabolic pathways, which of the following statements is most likely to be true? (Concept 8.5 )
The Correct Answer: High levels of ADP act as an allosteric activator of catabolic pathways

طموحي الجنون
26th May 2009, 03:59 PM
شابتر 9

Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy





Activities Quiz



1 . What process occurs in structure H? (Activity: Build a Chemical Cycling System)



cellular respiration

intracellular digestion

protein synthesis

ribosome synthesis

photosynthesis


2 . What molecules belong in space A and B? (Activity: Build a Chemical Cycling System)



glucose and carbon dioxide

carbon dioxide and water

oxygen and water

glucose and oxygen

carbon dioxide and oxygen


3 . What organelle is indicated by the letter C? (Activity: Build a Chemical Cycling System)



mitochondrion

Golgi apparatus

lysosome

chloroplast

peroxisome


4 . What molecules belong in spaces E and F? (Activity: Build a Chemical Cycling System)



glucose, water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen

glucose and oxygen

carbon dioxide and oxygen

oxygen and water

carbon dioxide and water


5 . What process occurs in Box A? (Activity: Overview of Cellular Respiration)



glycolysis

the citric acid cycle

electron transport

oxidative phosphorylation

electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation


6 . What process occurs within Box B? (Activity: Overview of Cellular Respiration)



glycolysis

the citric acid cycle

electron transport

oxidative phosphorylation

photophosphorylation


7 . What molecule is indicated by the letter D? (Activity: Overview of Cellular Respiration)



glucose

ATP

oxygen

pyruvate

water


8 . How many NADH are produced by glycolysis? (Activity: Glycolysis)

1

2

3

4

5


9 . In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by _____. (Activity: Glycolysis)

photophosphorylation

substrate-level phosphorylation

cellular respiration

oxidative phosphorylation

photosynthesis


10 . Which of these is NOT a product of glycolysis? (Activity: Glycolysis)

water

NADH + H+

ATP

FADH2

pyruvate


11 . In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose oxidation? (Activity: Glycolysis)

hexokinase

NADPH

ADP

ATP

FADH2


12 . In glycolysis there is a net gain of _____ ATP. (Activity: Glycolysis)

1

2

3

4

5


13 . Which of these enters the citric acid cycle? (Activity: The Citric Acid Cycle)

NADH + H+

acetyl CoA

G3P

pyruvate

glucose


14 . How does pyruvate enter a mitochondrion? (Activity: The Citric Acid Cycle)

osmosis

phagocytosis

pinocytosis

exocytosis

diffusion


15 . In the citric acid cycle, ATP molecules are produced by _____. (Activity: The Citric Acid Cycle)

photophosphorylation

substrate-level phosphorylation

cellular respiration

oxidative phosphorylation

photosynthesis


16 . Which of these is NOT a product of the citric acid cycle? (Activity: The Citric Acid Cycle)

ATP

NADH + H+

FADH2

CO2

acetyl CO2


17 . For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ acetyl CoA enter the citric acid cycle. (Activity: Electron Transport)

0

1

2

4

5


18 . For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ NADH + H+ are produced by the citric acid cycle. (Activity: Electron Transport)

0

2

3

6

3 to 6


19 . In cellular respiration, most ATP molecules are produced by _____. (Activity: Electron Transport)

photophosphorylation

substrate-level phosphorylation

cellular respiration

oxidative phosphorylation

photosynthesis


20 . The final electron acceptor of cellular respiration is _____. (Activity: Electron Transport)

water

oxygen

FADH2

CO2

NADH


21 . During electron transport, energy from _____ is used to pump hydrogen ions into the _____. (Activity: Electron Transport)

NADH and FADH2 ... intermembrane space

NADH and FADH2 ... mitochondrial matrix

NADH ... intermembrane space

NADH ... mitochondrial matrix

acetyl CoA ... intermembrane space


22 . Structure A is _____. (Activity: Electron Transport)



an electron donor

ATP synthase

phospholipid

sensory protein

an electron acceptor


23 . The proximate (immediate) source of energy for oxidative phosphorylation is _____. (Activity: Electron Transport)

kinetic energy that is released as hydrogen ions diffuse down their concentration gradient

substrate-level phosphorylation

NADH and FADH2

ATP synthase

ATP


24 . In muscle cells, fermentation produces _____. (Activity: Fermentation)

pyruvate

carbon dioxide, ethanol, NAD+, and ATP

carbon dioxide, ethanol, NADH, and ATP

carbon dioxide, lactate, NAD+, and ATP

carbon dioxide, lactate, NADH, and ATP


25 . In fermentation _____ is reduced and _____ is oxidized. (Activity: Fermentation)

lactate ... NADH

NAD+ ... pyruvate

pyruvate ... NADH

lactate ... ethanol

NADH ... lactate







©2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings



الأجوبة::


________________________________________
1. Not Answered What process occurs in structure H? (Activity: Build a Chemical Cycling System)


The Correct Answer: photosynthesis

________________________________________
2. Not Answered What molecules belong in space A and B? (Activity: Build a Chemical Cycling System)


The Correct Answer: glucose and oxygen

________________________________________
3. Not Answered What organelle is indicated by the letter C? (Activity: Build a Chemical Cycling System)


The Correct Answer: mitochondrion

________________________________________
4. Not Answered What molecules belong in spaces E and F? (Activity: Build a Chemical Cycling System)


The Correct Answer: carbon dioxide and water

________________________________________
5. Not Answered What process occurs in Box A? (Activity: Overview of Cellular Respiration)


The Correct Answer: glycolysis

________________________________________
6. Not Answered What process occurs within Box B? (Activity: Overview of Cellular Respiration)


The Correct Answer: the citric acid cycle

________________________________________
7. Not Answered What molecule is indicated by the letter D? (Activity: Overview of Cellular Respiration)


The Correct Answer: oxygen

________________________________________
8. Not Answered How many NADH are produced by glycolysis? (Activity: Glycolysis)
The Correct Answer: 2

________________________________________
9. Not Answered In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by _____. (Activity: Glycolysis)
The Correct Answer: substrate-level phosphorylation

________________________________________
10. Not Answered Which of these is NOT a product of glycolysis? (Activity: Glycolysis)
The Correct Answer: FADH2

________________________________________
11. Not Answered In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose oxidation? (Activity: Glycolysis)
The Correct Answer: ATP

________________________________________
12. Not Answered In glycolysis there is a net gain of _____ ATP. (Activity: Glycolysis)
The Correct Answer: 2

________________________________________
13. Not Answered Which of these enters the citric acid cycle? (Activity: The Citric Acid Cycle)
The Correct Answer: acetyl CoA

________________________________________
14. Not Answered How does pyruvate enter a mitochondrion? (Activity: The Citric Acid Cycle)
The Correct Answer: diffusion

________________________________________
15. Not Answered In the citric acid cycle, ATP molecules are produced by _____. (Activity: The Citric Acid Cycle)
The Correct Answer: substrate-level phosphorylation

________________________________________
16. Not Answered Which of these is NOT a product of the citric acid cycle? (Activity: The Citric Acid Cycle)
The Correct Answer: acetyl CO2

________________________________________
17. Not Answered For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ acetyl CoA enter the citric acid cycle. (Activity: Electron Transport)
The Correct Answer: 2

________________________________________
18. Not Answered For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ NADH + H+ are produced by the citric acid cycle. (Activity: Electron Transport)
The Correct Answer: 6

________________________________________
19. Not Answered In cellular respiration, most ATP molecules are produced by _____. (Activity: Electron Transport)
The Correct Answer: oxidative phosphorylation

________________________________________
20. Not Answered The final electron acceptor of cellular respiration is _____. (Activity: Electron Transport)
The Correct Answer: oxygen

________________________________________
21. Not Answered During electron transport, energy from _____ is used to pump hydrogen ions into the _____. (Activity: Electron Transport)
The Correct Answer: NADH and FADH2 ... intermembrane space

________________________________________
22. Not Answered Structure A is _____. (Activity: Electron Transport)


The Correct Answer: ATP synthase

________________________________________
23. Not Answered The proximate (immediate) source of energy for oxidative phosphorylation is _____. (Activity: Electron Transport)
The Correct Answer: kinetic energy that is released as hydrogen ions diffuse down their concentration gradient

________________________________________
24. Not Answered In muscle cells, fermentation produces _____. (Activity: Fermentation)
The Correct Answer: carbon dioxide, lactate, NAD+, and ATP

________________________________________
25. Not Answered In fermentation _____ is reduced and _____ is oxidized. (Activity: Fermentation)
The Correct Answer: pyruvate ... NADH




Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy





Chapter Quiz



1 . A molecule becomes more oxidized when it _____. (Concept 9.1 ) [Hint]

changes shape

gains a hydrogen (H+) ion

loses a hydrogen (H+) ion

gains an electron

loses an electron


2 . In the overall process of glycolysis and cellular respiration, _____ is oxidized and _____ is reduced. (Concept 9.1 ) [Hint]

oxygen ... ATP

ATP ... oxygen

glucose ... oxygen

carbon dioxide ... water

glucose ... ATP


3 . Most of the ATP produced in cellular respiration comes from which of the following processes? (Concept 9.1 ) [Hint]

glycolysis

oxidative phosphorylation

reduction of NADH

substrate-level phosphorylation

the citric acid cycle


4 . Oxygen gas (O2) is one of the strongest oxidizing agents known. The explanation for this is that _____. (Concept 9.1 ) [Hint]

oxygen is so abundant in the atmosphere

oxygen gas is composed of two atoms of oxygen

oxygen gas contains a double bond

the oxygen atom is very electronegative

oxygen acts as the final electron acceptor in cellular respiration


5 . The function of cellular respiration is to _____. (Concept 9.1 ) [Hint]

reduce CO2

extract CO2 from the atmosphere

extract usable energy from glucose

synthesize macromolecules from monomers

produce carbohydrates


6 . During the reaction C6H12O6 + 6 O2  6 CO2 + 6 H2O, which compound is reduced as a result of the reaction? (Concept 9.1 ) [Hint]

oxygen

glucose

carbon dioxide

water

both glucose and carbon dioxide


7 . Which of the following statements provides the best explanation for why the oxidation of organic compounds by molecular oxygen (O2) yields so much energy? (Concept 9.1 ) [Hint]

The oxygen atom has a higher affinity for electrons than the carbon atom.

The reaction has a very negative free-energy change.

In cells, this reaction is capable of providing the energy for ATP synthesis.

This is an example of a redox reaction, and all redox reactions produce a large amount of energy.

Any reaction that produces water as a product will also release a lot of energy.


8 . Each ATP molecule contains about 1% of the amount of chemical energy available from the complete oxidation of a single glucose molecule. Cellular respiration produces about 38 ATP from one glucose molecule. What happens to the rest of the energy in glucose? (Concept 9.1 ) [Hint]

It is stored as fat.

It is converted to heat.

It is used to make water from hydrogen ions and oxygen.

It is released as carbon dioxide and water

It is converted to starch.


9 . A small amount of ATP is made in glycolysis by which of the following processes? (Concept 9.2 ) [Hint]

transfer of a phosphate group from a fragment of glucose to ADP by substrate-level phosphorylation

harnessing energy from the sun

transport of electrons through a series of carriers

transfer of electrons and hydrogen atoms to NAD+

attachment of a free inorganic phosphate (Pi) group to ADP to make ATP


10 . A chemist has discovered a drug that blocks phosphoglucoisomerase, an enzyme that catalyzes the second reaction in glycolysis. He wants to use the drug to kill bacteria in people with infections. But he can't do this because _____. (Concept 9.2 ) [Hint]

bacteria are prokaryotes; they usually don't need to perform glycolysis

glycolysis produces so little ATP that the drug will have little effect

human cells must also perform glycolysis; the drug might also poison them

this step in the pathway of glycolysis can be skipped in bacteria, but not in humans

glycolysis can occur without the action of enzymes


11 . In glycolysis, there is no production of carbon dioxide as a product of the pathway. Which of the following is the best explanation for this? (Concept 9.2 ) [Hint]

There are no oxidation or reduction reactions in glycolysis to produce CO2.

There is very little ATP produced in glycolysis.

The two pyruvate molecules produced from each glucose molecule each contain three carbon atoms.

The initial steps of glycolysis require an input of energy in the form of ATP (two per glucose).

None of the above is correct.


12 . Of the following molecules in the glycolytic pathway (the process of glycolysis), the one with the most chemical energy is _____. (Concept 9.2 ) [Hint]

pyruvate

glucose

fructose-6-phosphate

fructose-1,6-bisphosphate

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate


13 . During respiration in a eukaryotic cell, reactions of glycolysis occur _____. (Concept 9.2 ) [Hint]

in the cytosol

in the matrix of the mitochondrion

in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion

in the intermembrane space of the mitochondrion

across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion


14 . What is the name of the process in which glucose is converted to pyruvate with the production of ATP and NADH? (Concept 9.2 ) [Hint]

chemiosmotic theory

fermentation

glycolysis

the citric acid cycle

none of the above


15 . Most of the NADH that delivers electrons to the electron transport chain comes from which of the following? (Concept 9.3 ) [Hint]

oxidative phosphorylation

substrate-level phosphorylation

glycolysis

anabolic pathways

the citric acid cycle


16 . In an experiment, mice were fed glucose (C6H12O6) containing a small amount of radioactive oxygen. The mice were closely monitored, and in a few minutes radioactive oxygen atoms showed up in which compound? (Concept 9.3 ) [Hint]

carbon dioxide

NADH

water

ATP

oxygen gas


17 . In preparing pyruvate to enter the citric acid cycle, which of the following steps does not occur? (Concept 9.3 ) [Hint]

It is oxidized, and the resulting electrons reduce an NAD+ to an NADH.

A carbon atom is released in carbon dioxide.

A compound called coenzyme A binds to a two-carbon fragment.

The product of this reaction is transferred from the cytoplasm to the matrix of the mitochondria.

All of the above are steps in the metabolism of pyruvate before its entry into the citric acid cycle.


18 . Why is the citric acid cycle called a cycle? (Concept 9.3 ) [Hint]

The pyruvate that enters the cycle is regenerated in the last step of the pathway.

NAD+ and FAD are recycled.

The four-carbon acid that accepts the acetyl CoA in the first step of the cycle is regenerated by the last step of the cycle.

All of the carbon from glucose is cycled back into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.

NADH is cycled down the electron transport chain.


19 . In the citric acid cycle, for each pyruvate that enters the cycle, 1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2 are produced. For each glucose molecule that enters glycolysis, how many ATP, NADH, and FADH2 are produced in the citric acid cycle? (Concept 9.3 ) [Hint]

2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2

4 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2

3 ATP, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2

about 38 ATP

1 ATP, 3 NADH, 1 FADH2


20 . During respiration in a eukaryotic cell, reactions of the citric acid cycle occur _____. (Concept 9.3 ) [Hint]

in the cytosol

in the matrix of the mitochondrion

in the cristae of the mitochondrion

in the intermembrane space of the mitochondrion

across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion


21 . How many molecules of ATP are gained by substrate-level phosphorylation from the complete breakdown of a single molecule of glucose in the presence of oxygen? (Concept 9.3 ) [Hint]

2

4

3

about 38 ATP

none of the above


22 . Which of the following represents the major (but not the only) energy accomplishment of the citric acid cycle? (Concept 9.3 ) [Hint]

formation of CO2

formation of ATP

formation of NADH and FADH2

utilization of O2

completion of substrate-level phosphorylation


23 . After completion of the citric acid cycle, most of the usable energy from the original glucose molecule is in the form of _____. (Concept 9.3 ) [Hint]

acetyl CoA

ATP

NADH

CO2

FADH2


24 . Which of the following accompanies the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA before the citric acid cycle? (Concept 9.3 ) [Hint]

formation of CO2 and ATP

formation of CO2 and NADH

formation of CO2 and coenzyme A

completion of one turn of the citric acid cycle

regeneration of NAD+


25 . The energy given up by electrons as they move through the electron transport chain is used in which of the following processes? (Concept 9.4 ) [Hint]

the breakdown of glucose

the production of NADH and FADH2

pumping H+ across a membrane

the oxidation of water

the production of CO2


26 . The ATP synthase in a human cell obtains energy for making ATP directly from which of the following processes? (Concept 9.4 ) [Hint]

the oxidation of NADH and FADH2

the flow of H+ across a membrane through the ATP synthase enzyme

the oxidation of glucose

the movement of electrons through a series of carriers

the reduction of oxygen


27 . When a poison such as cyanide blocks the electron transport chain, glycolysis and the citric acid cycle soon grind to a halt as well. Which of the following is the best explanation for this? (Concept 9.4 ) [Hint]

A high level of NADH is present in the cell.

The uptake of oxygen stops because electron transport was inhibited.

NAD+ and FAD are not available for glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to continue.

Electrons are no longer available from the electron transport chain to power glycolysis and the citric acid cycle.

They run out of ADP.


28 . Which of the following sequences correctly describes the synthesis of ATP associated with electron transport in mitochondria? (Concept 9.4 ) [Hint]

NADH, electron transport, chemiosmosis, proton gradient

NADH, electron transport, proton gradient, substrate-level phosphorylation

NADH, electron transport, proton gradient, chemiosmosis

NADH, electron transport, substrate-level phosphorylation, ATP

None of the above correctly shows the pattern of energy flow between electron transport and ATP synthesis.


29 . Most of the electrons removed from glucose by cellular respiration are used for which of the following processes? (Concept 9.4 ) [Hint]

reducing NAD+ to NADH in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle

producing a proton gradient for ATP synthesis in the mitochondria

driving substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis

The first two choices are correct.

The first three answers are correct.


30 . Which part of the cellular catabolism of glucose both requires molecular oxygen (O2) and produces CO2? (Concept 9.4 ) [Hint]

glycolysis

the citric acid cycle

the electron transport chain

the combination of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle

the combination of the citric acid cycle and electron transport


31 . During aerobic respiration, molecular oxygen (O2) is used for which of the following purposes? (Concept 9.4 ) [Hint]

at the end of glycolysis to oxidize pyruvate

at the end of the citric acid cycle to regenerate citric acid

between glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to split a carbon from pyruvate, producing CO2

as a source of O2 in every reaction that produces CO2

at the end of the electron transport chain to accept electrons and form H2O


32 . Which of the following substances, if any, is not directly involved in oxidative phosphorylation? (Concept 9.4 ) [Hint]

ADP

oxygen

ATP

glucose

All of the above are involved in oxidative phosphorylation.


33 . Which one of the following best describes the electron transport chain? (Concept 9.4 ) [Hint]

Electrons are pumped across a membrane by active transport.

Acetyl CoA is fully oxidized to CO2.

Hydrogen atoms are added to CO2 to make an energy-rich compound.

Electrons are passed from one carrier to another, releasing a little energy at each step.

Glucose is broken down to a three-carbon compound in preparation for the citric acid cycle.


34 . If a compound that allows protons to freely diffuse across membranes is added to cells that are actively metabolizing glucose via cellular respiration, which of the following processes would stop? (Concept 9.4 ) [Hint]

glycolysis

electron transport

ATP synthesis

none of the above

all of the above


35 . Which one of the following is the source of the energy that produces the chemiosmotic gradient in mitochondria? (Concept 9.4 ) [Hint]

ATP

an ATP-dependent proton pump

the production of NADH

the components of the electron transport chain

electrons moving down the electron transport chain


36 . During respiration in a eukaryotic cell, the electron transport chain is located in or on the _____. (Concept 9.4 ) [Hint]

cytosol

matrix of the mitochondrion

inner membrane of the mitochondrion

intermembrane space of the mitochondrion

none of the above


37 . The overall efficiency of respiration (the percentage of the energy released that is saved in ATP) is approximately _____. (Concept 9.4 ) [Hint]

0.5%

2%

40%

94%

100%


38 . Fermentation is essentially glycolysis plus an extra step in which pyruvate is reduced to form lactate or alcohol and carbon dioxide. This last step _____. (Concept 9.5 ) [Hint]

removes poisonous oxygen from the environment

extracts a bit more energy from glucose

enables the cell to recycle NAD+

prevents pyruvate from accumulating

enables the cell to make pyruvate into substances it can use


39 . Sports physiologists at an Olympic training center wanted to monitor athletes to determine at what point their muscles were functioning anaerobically. They could do this by checking for a buildup of which of the following compounds? (Concept 9.5 ) [Hint]

ATP

lactate

carbon dioxide

ADP

oxygen


40 . In glycolysis in the absence of oxygen, cells need a way to regenerate which compound? (Concept 9.5 ) [Hint]

ethanol

carbon dioxide

NAD+

lactate

glucose


41 . Muscle tissues make lactate from pyruvate in order to do which of the following? (Concept 9.5 ) [Hint]

speed up the rate of glycolysis

get rid of pyruvate produced by glycolysis

utilize the energy in pyruvate

produce additional CO2

regenerate NAD+


42 . In brewing beer, maltose (a disaccharide of glucose) is _____. (Concept 9.5 ) [Hint]

a flavoring ingredient

the substrate for aerobic respiration

the substrate for alcoholic fermentation

one of the enzymes for alcoholic fermentation

a substitute for pyruvate that cannot be made in yeast


43 . If muscle cells in the human body consume O2 faster than it can be supplied, which of the following is likely to result? (Concept 9.5 ) [Hint]

The muscle cells will have more trouble making enough ATP to meet their energy requirements.

The cells will not be able to carry out oxidative phosphorylation.

The cells will consume glucose at an increased rate.

The first two answers are correct.

The first three answers are correct.


44 . Of the metabolic pathways listed below, which is the only pathway found in all organisms? (Concept 9.5 ) [Hint]

cellular respiration

the citric acid cycle

the electron transport chain

glycolysis

fermentation


45 . When protein molecules are used as fuel for cellular respiration, _____ are produced as waste. (Concept 9.6 ) [Hint]

amino groups

fatty acids

sugar molecules

molecules of lactate

ethanol and CO2


46 . A gram of fat oxidized by respiration produces approximately twice as much ATP as a gram of carbohydrate. Which of the following best explains this observation? (Concept 9.6 ) [Hint]

Fats are produced when cells take in more food than they need.

Fats are better electron donors to oxygen than are sugars.

Fats are less soluble in water than sugars.

Fats do not form true macromolecules like sugars do.

Fats are closely related to lipid molecules, the basic building blocks of cellular membranes.


47 . If significant amounts of materials are removed from the citric acid cycle to produce amino acids for protein synthesis, which of the following will result? (Concept 9.6 ) [Hint]

Less ATP will be produced by the cell.

Less CO2 will be produced by the cell.

The four-carbon compound that combines with acetyl CoA will have to be made by some other process.

The first two answers are correct.

The first three answers are correct.




ا

الأجوبة::

Summary: 0% Correct
0%
0%
100%


Of 47 questions, here are your results:
0 correct or not graded
0 incorrect
47 unanswered
Submitted on Sat May 16 20:41:12 UTC+0300 2009
________________________________________
1. Not Answered A molecule becomes more oxidized when it _____. (Concept 9.1 )
The Correct Answer: loses an electron

________________________________________
2. Not Answered In the overall process of glycolysis and cellular respiration, _____ is oxidized and _____ is reduced. (Concept 9.1 )
The Correct Answer: glucose ... oxygen

________________________________________
3. Not Answered Most of the ATP produced in cellular respiration comes from which of the following processes? (Concept 9.1 )
The Correct Answer: oxidative phosphorylation

________________________________________
4. Not Answered Oxygen gas (O2) is one of the strongest oxidizing agents known. The explanation for this is that _____. (Concept 9.1 )
The Correct Answer: the oxygen atom is very electronegative

________________________________________
5. Not Answered The function of cellular respiration is to _____. (Concept 9.1 )
The Correct Answer: extract usable energy from glucose

________________________________________
6. Not Answered During the reaction C6H12O6 + 6 O2  6 CO2 + 6 H2O, which compound is reduced as a result of the reaction? (Concept 9.1 )
The Correct Answer: oxygen

________________________________________
7. Not Answered Which of the following statements provides the best explanation for why the oxidation of organic compounds by molecular oxygen (O2) yields so much energy? (Concept 9.1 )
The Correct Answer: The oxygen atom has a higher affinity for electrons than the carbon atom.

________________________________________
8. Not Answered Each ATP molecule contains about 1% of the amount of chemical energy available from the complete oxidation of a single glucose molecule. Cellular respiration produces about 38 ATP from one glucose molecule. What happens to the rest of the energy in glucose? (Concept 9.1 )
The Correct Answer: It is converted to heat.

________________________________________
9. Not Answered A small amount of ATP is made in glycolysis by which of the following processes? (Concept 9.2 )
The Correct Answer: transfer of a phosphate group from a fragment of glucose to ADP by substrate-level phosphorylation

________________________________________
10. Not Answered A chemist has discovered a drug that blocks phosphoglucoisomerase, an enzyme that catalyzes the second reaction in glycolysis. He wants to use the drug to kill bacteria in people with infections. But he can't do this because _____. (Concept 9.2 )
The Correct Answer: human cells must also perform glycolysis; the drug might also poison them

________________________________________
11. Not Answered In glycolysis, there is no production of carbon dioxide as a product of the pathway. Which of the following is the best explanation for this? (Concept 9.2 )
The Correct Answer: The two pyruvate molecules produced from each glucose molecule each contain three carbon atoms.

________________________________________
12. Not Answered Of the following molecules in the glycolytic pathway (the process of glycolysis), the one with the most chemical energy is _____. (Concept 9.2 )
The Correct Answer: fructose-1,6-bisphosphate

________________________________________
13. Not Answered During respiration in a eukaryotic cell, reactions of glycolysis occur _____. (Concept 9.2 )
The Correct Answer: in the cytosol

________________________________________
14. Not Answered What is the name of the process in which glucose is converted to pyruvate with the production of ATP and NADH? (Concept 9.2 )
The Correct Answer: glycolysis

________________________________________
15. Not Answered Most of the NADH that delivers electrons to the electron transport chain comes from which of the following? (Concept 9.3 )
The Correct Answer: the citric acid cycle

________________________________________
16. Not Answered In an experiment, mice were fed glucose (C6H12O6) containing a small amount of radioactive oxygen. The mice were closely monitored, and in a few minutes radioactive oxygen atoms showed up in which compound? (Concept 9.3 )
The Correct Answer: carbon dioxide

________________________________________
17. Not Answered In preparing pyruvate to enter the citric acid cycle, which of the following steps does not occur? (Concept 9.3 )
The Correct Answer: All of the above are steps in the metabolism of pyruvate before its entry into the citric acid cycle.

________________________________________
18. Not Answered Why is the citric acid cycle called a cycle? (Concept 9.3 )
The Correct Answer: The four-carbon acid that accepts the acetyl CoA in the first step of the cycle is regenerated by the last step of the cycle.

________________________________________
19. Not Answered In the citric acid cycle, for each pyruvate that enters the cycle, 1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2 are produced. For each glucose molecule that enters glycolysis, how many ATP, NADH, and FADH2 are produced in the citric acid cycle? (Concept 9.3 )
The Correct Answer: 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2

________________________________________
20. Not Answered During respiration in a eukaryotic cell, reactions of the citric acid cycle occur _____. (Concept 9.3 )
The Correct Answer: in the matrix of the mitochondrion

________________________________________
21. Not Answered How many molecules of ATP are gained by substrate-level phosphorylation from the complete breakdown of a single molecule of glucose in the presence of oxygen? (Concept 9.3 )
The Correct Answer: 4

________________________________________
22. Not Answered Which of the following represents the major (but not the only) energy accomplishment of the citric acid cycle? (Concept 9.3 )
The Correct Answer: formation of NADH and FADH2

________________________________________
23. Not Answered After completion of the citric acid cycle, most of the usable energy from the original glucose molecule is in the form of _____. (Concept 9.3 )
The Correct Answer: NADH

________________________________________
24. Not Answered Which of the following accompanies the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA before the citric acid cycle? (Concept 9.3 )
The Correct Answer: formation of CO2 and NADH

________________________________________
25. Not Answered The energy given up by electrons as they move through the electron transport chain is used in which of the following processes? (Concept 9.4 )
The Correct Answer: pumping H+ across a membrane

________________________________________
26. Not Answered The ATP synthase in a human cell obtains energy for making ATP directly from which of the following processes? (Concept 9.4 )
The Correct Answer: the flow of H+ across a membrane through the ATP synthase enzyme

________________________________________
27. Not Answered When a poison such as cyanide blocks the electron transport chain, glycolysis and the citric acid cycle soon grind to a halt as well. Which of the following is the best explanation for this? (Concept 9.4 )
The Correct Answer: NAD+ and FAD are not available for glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to continue.

________________________________________
28. Not Answered Which of the following sequences correctly describes the synthesis of ATP associated with electron transport in mitochondria? (Concept 9.4 )
The Correct Answer: NADH, electron transport, proton gradient, chemiosmosis

________________________________________
29. Not Answered Most of the electrons removed from glucose by cellular respiration are used for which of the following processes? (Concept 9.4 )
The Correct Answer: The first two choices are correct.

________________________________________
30. Not Answered Which part of the cellular catabolism of glucose both requires molecular oxygen (O2) and produces CO2? (Concept 9.4 )
The Correct Answer: the combination of the citric acid cycle and electron transport

________________________________________
31. Not Answered During aerobic respiration, molecular oxygen (O2) is used for which of the following purposes? (Concept 9.4 )
The Correct Answer: at the end of the electron transport chain to accept electrons and form H2O

________________________________________
32. Not Answered Which of the following substances, if any, is not directly involved in oxidative phosphorylation? (Concept 9.4 )
The Correct Answer: glucose

________________________________________
33. Not Answered Which one of the following best describes the electron transport chain? (Concept 9.4 )
The Correct Answer: Electrons are passed from one carrier to another, releasing a little energy at each step.

________________________________________
34. Not Answered If a compound that allows protons to freely diffuse across membranes is added to cells that are actively metabolizing glucose via cellular respiration, which of the following processes would stop? (Concept 9.4 )
The Correct Answer: none of the above

________________________________________
35. Not Answered Which one of the following is the source of the energy that produces the chemiosmotic gradient in mitochondria? (Concept 9.4 )
The Correct Answer: electrons moving down the electron transport chain

________________________________________
36. Not Answered During respiration in a eukaryotic cell, the electron transport chain is located in or on the _____. (Concept 9.4 )
The Correct Answer: inner membrane of the mitochondrion

________________________________________
37. Not Answered The overall efficiency of respiration (the percentage of the energy released that is saved in ATP) is approximately _____. (Concept 9.4 )
The Correct Answer: 40%

________________________________________
38. Not Answered Fermentation is essentially glycolysis plus an extra step in which pyruvate is reduced to form lactate or alcohol and carbon dioxide. This last step _____. (Concept 9.5 )
The Correct Answer: enables the cell to recycle NAD+

________________________________________
39. Not Answered Sports physiologists at an Olympic training center wanted to monitor athletes to determine at what point their muscles were functioning anaerobically. They could do this by checking for a buildup of which of the following compounds? (Concept 9.5 )
The Correct Answer: lactate

________________________________________
40. Not Answered In glycolysis in the absence of oxygen, cells need a way to regenerate which compound? (Concept 9.5 )
The Correct Answer: NAD+

________________________________________
41. Not Answered Muscle tissues make lactate from pyruvate in order to do which of the following? (Concept 9.5 )
The Correct Answer: regenerate NAD+

________________________________________
42. Not Answered In brewing beer, maltose (a disaccharide of glucose) is _____. (Concept 9.5 )
The Correct Answer: the substrate for alcoholic fermentation

________________________________________
43. Not Answered If muscle cells in the human body consume O2 faster than it can be supplied, which of the following is likely to result? (Concept 9.5 )
The Correct Answer: The first three answers are correct.

________________________________________
44. Not Answered Of the metabolic pathways listed below, which is the only pathway found in all organisms? (Concept 9.5 )
The Correct Answer: glycolysis

________________________________________
45. Not Answered When protein molecules are used as fuel for cellular respiration, _____ are produced as waste. (Concept 9.6 )
The Correct Answer: amino groups

________________________________________
46. Not Answered A gram of fat oxidized by respiration produces approximately twice as much ATP as a gram of carbohydrate. Which of the following best explains this observation? (Concept 9.6 )
The Correct Answer: Fats are better electron donors to oxygen than are sugars.

________________________________________
47. Not Answered If significant amounts of materials are removed from the citric acid cycle to produce amino acids for protein synthesis, which of the following will result? (Concept 9.6 )
The Correct Answer: The first three answers are correct.


يلا وحدة سنعة

تنزل الشابترين الثانيين,,

دعواتكم وموفقااات

طموحي الجنون
26th May 2009, 04:13 PM
قلت أكمل معروفي

شابتر 5&16



شابتر 5

22 . If a strand of DNA has the nitrogen base sequence ATTTGC, what will be the sequence of the matching strand? (Activity: Nucleic Acid Structure)

GCAAAT

ATTTGC

TAAACG

TUUUCG

UAAACG


23 . If a DNA double helix is 100 nucleotide pairs long and contains 25 adenine bases, how many guanine bases does it contain? (Activity: Nucleic Acid Structure)

25

150

75

50

200


24 . The two strands of a DNA double helix are held together by _____ that form between pairs of nitrogenous bases. (Activity: Nucleic Acid Structure)

hydrogen bonds

ionic bonds

hydrophilic interactions

S—S bonds

covalent bonds


25 . A nucleotide is composed of a(n) _____. (Activity: Nucleic Acid Structure)

phosphate group, a nitrogen-containing base, and a hydrocarbon

phosphate group, a nitrogen-containing base, and a five-carbon sugar

glycerol, a nitrogen-containing base, and a five-carbon sugar

amino group, a nitrogen-containing base, and a five-carbon sugar

sulfhydryl group, a nitrogen-containing base, and a five-carbon sugar


الأجوبة::

________________________________________
22. Not Answered If a strand of DNA has the nitrogen base sequence ATTTGC, what will be the sequence of the matching strand? (Activity: Nucleic Acid Structure)
The Correct Answer: TAAACG

________________________________________
23. Not Answered If a DNA double helix is 100 nucleotide pairs long and contains 25 adenine bases, how many guanine bases does it contain? (Activity: Nucleic Acid Structure)
The Correct Answer: 75

________________________________________
24. Not Answered The two strands of a DNA double helix are held together by _____ that form between pairs of nitrogenous bases. (Activity: Nucleic Acid Structure)
The Correct Answer: hydrogen bonds

________________________________________
25. Not Answered A nucleotide is composed of a(n) _____. (Activity: Nucleic Acid Structure)
The Correct Answer: phosphate group, a nitrogen-containing base, and a five-carbon sugar


40 . Which of the following do proteins and nucleic acids have in common? (Concept 5.5 ) [Hint]

They are both made of amino acids.

Their structures contain sugars.

They are hydrophobic.

They are large polymers.

They each consist of four basic kinds of subunits (monomers).


41 . A glucose molecule is to starch as _____. (Concept 5.5 ) [Hint]

a steroid is to a lipid

a protein is to an amino acid

a nucleic acid is to a polypeptide

a nucleotide is to a nucleic acid

an amino acid is to a nucleic acid


42 . A shortage of phosphorus in the soil would make it especially difficult for a plant to manufacture _____. (Concept 5.5 ) [Hint]

DNA

proteins

cellulose

fatty acids

sucrose


43 . On the basis of the principle of complementary base pairing, you would expect the percentage of _____ to be equal to the percentage of _____. (Concept 5.5 ) [Hint]

adenine ... thymine

adenine ... guanine

thymine ... guanine

adenine ... cytosine

thymine ... cytosine


44 . Which of the following are pyrimidines found in the nucleic acid DNA? (Concept 5.5 ) [Hint]

adenine and guanine

thymine and cytosine

thymine and adenine

uracil and guanine

guanine and cytosine


45 . Which of the following describes a difference between DNA and RNA? (Concept 5.5 ) [Hint]

RNA molecules consist of a single polynucleotide chain, whereas DNA molecules consist of two polynucleotide chains organized into a double helix.

One of their nitrogenous bases is different.

They contain different sugars.

The first and second choices are correct differences.

The first three choices all describe differences.


46 . A nucleotide is made of which of the following chemical components? (Concept 5.5 ) [Hint]

a nitrogenous base, an amino acid, and a pentose sugar

a nitrogenous base, an amino acid, and a phosphate group

a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a pentose sugar

a nitrogenous base, a fatty acid, and an amino acid

a series of nitrogenous bases, a nucleic acid backbone, and a hexose sugar


________________________________________
40. Not Answered Which of the following do proteins and nucleic acids have in common? (Concept 5.5 )
The Correct Answer: They are large polymers.

________________________________________
41. Not Answered A glucose molecule is to starch as _____. (Concept 5.5 )
The Correct Answer: a nucleotide is to a nucleic acid

________________________________________
42. Not Answered A shortage of phosphorus in the soil would make it especially difficult for a plant to manufacture _____. (Concept 5.5 )
The Correct Answer: DNA

________________________________________
43. Not Answered On the basis of the principle of complementary base pairing, you would expect the percentage of _____ to be equal to the percentage of _____. (Concept 5.5 )
The Correct Answer: adenine ... thymine

________________________________________
44. Not Answered Which of the following are pyrimidines found in the nucleic acid DNA? (Concept 5.5 )
The Correct Answer: thymine and cytosine

________________________________________
45. Not Answered Which of the following describes a difference between DNA and RNA? (Concept 5.5 )
The Correct Answer: The first three choices all describe differences.


شابتر 16

Chapter 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance





Activities Quiz



1 . This is an image of a _____. (Activity: The Hershey-Chase Experiment)


bacterium

red blood cell

phage

moneran

protist


2 . Who demonstrated that DNA is the genetic material of the T2 phage? (Activity: The Hershey-Chase Experiment)

Franklin

Hershey and Chase

Meselson and Stahl

Watson and Crick

Darwin and Wallace


3 . The radioactive isotope 32P labels the T2 phage's _____. (Activity: The Hershey-Chase Experiment)

DNA

tail

base plate

protein coat

head


4 . Hershey and Chase used _____ to radioactively label the T2 phage's proteins. (Activity: The Hershey-Chase Experiment)

35S

14C

222Ra

32P

92U


5 . After allowing phages grown with bacteria in a medium that contained 32P and 35S, Hershey and Chase used a centrifuge to separate the phage ghosts from the infected cell. They then examined the infected cells and found that they contained _____, which demonstrated that _____ is the phage's genetic material. (Activity: The Hershey-Chase Experiment)

labeled protein ... DNA

labeled protein .... protein

labeled DNA ... labeled protein

labeled DNA .... protein

labeled DNA ... DNA


6 . In the accompanying image, a nucleotide is indicated by the letter _____. (Activity: DNA and RNA Structure)


A

B

C

D

E


7 . Which of these is a difference between a DNA and an RNA molecule? (Activity: DNA and RNA Structure)

DNA contains uracil, whereas RNA contains thymine.

DNA is a polymer composed of nucleotides, whereas RNA is a polymer composed of nucleic acids.

DNA is double-stranded, whereas RNA is single-stranded.

DNA contains five-carbon sugars, whereas RNA contains six-carbon sugars.

DNA contains nitrogenous bases, whereas RNA contains phosphate groups.


8 . This is an image of a(n) _____. (Activity: DNA and RNA Structure)


amino acid

nucleic acid

thiol

nucleotide

none of the above


9 . The letter A indicates a _____. (Activity: DNA and RNA Structure)


phosphate group

nucleotide

nitrogenous base

sugar

none of the above


10 . A nitrogenous base is indicated by the letter _____. (Activity: DNA and RNA Structure)


A

B

C

D

E


11 . You can tell that this is an image of a DNA nucleotide and not an RNA nucleotide because you see a _____. (Activity: DNA and RNA Structure)


thymine nitrogenous base, not a uracil nitrogenous base

sugar with two, and not three, oxygen atoms

double-stranded molecule, not a single-stranded molecule

phosphate group, not a uracil

uracil nitrogenous base, not a thymine nitrogenous base


12 . Which of these nitrogenous bases is found in DNA but not in RNA? (Activity: DNA and RNA Structure)

adenine

cytosine

guanine

thymine

uracil


13 . Which of these is(are) pyrimidines? (Activity: DNA and RNA Structure)


A and B

A, B, and C

B and C

B, C, and D

C, D, and E


14 . In a nucleotide, the nitrogenous base is attached to the sugar's _____ carbon and the phosphate group is attached to the sugar's _____ carbon. (Activity: DNA and RNA Structure)

1' ... 2'

1' ... 5'

2' ... 3'

1' ... 3'

2' ... 1'


15 . Nucleic acids are assembled in the _____ direction. (Activity: DNA and RNA Structure)

1' to 5'

2' to 3'

5' to 3'

4' to 5'

5' to 1'


16 . In a DNA double helix an adenine of one strand always pairs with a(n) _____ of the complementary strand, and a guanine of one strand always pairs with a(n) _____ of the complementary strand. (Activity: DNA and RNA Structure),(Activity: DNA Double Helix), ( Activity: DNA Replication: A Closer Look)

guanine ... adenine

cytosine ... uracil

cytosine ... thymine

thymine ... cytosine

uracil ... cytosine


17 . Short segments of newly synthesized DNA are joined into a continuous strand by _____. (Activity: DNA Replication: An Overview), (Activity: DNA Replication: A Review)

helicase

DNA polymerase

ligase

primase

single-strand binding protein


18 . After DNA replication is completed, _____. (Activity: DNA Replication: An Overview), (Activity: DNA Replication: A Closer Look), (Activity: DNA Replication: A Review)

each new DNA double helix consists of one old DNA strand and one new DNA strand

each new DNA double helix consists of two new strands

one DNA double helix consists of two old strands and one DNA double helix consists of two new strands

each of the four DNA strands consists of some old strand parts and some new strand parts

there are four double helices


19 . The first step in the replication of DNA is catalyzed by _____. (Activity: DNA Replication: A Closer Look), (Activity: DNA Replication: A Review)

helicase

DNA polymerase

ligase

primase

single-strand binding protein


20 . The action of helicase creates _____. (Activity: DNA Replication: An Overview), (Activity: DNA Replication: A Closer Look), (Activity: DNA Replication: A Review)

primers and DNA fragments

primers and replication bubbles

DNA fragments and replication forks

replication forks and replication bubbles

DNA fragments and replication bubbles


21 . Why is the new DNA strand complementary to the 3' to 5' strands assembled in short segments? (Activity: DNA Replication: An Overview), (Activity: DNA Replication: A Closer Look), (Activity: DNA Replication: A Review)

the replication forks block the formation of longer strands

DNA polymerase can assemble DNA only in the 3' to 5' direction

DNA polymerase can assemble DNA only in the 5' to 3' direction

it is more efficient than assembling complete new strands

only short DNA sequences can extend off the RNA primers


22 . The synthesis of a new strand begins with the synthesis of a(n) _____. (Activity: DNA Replication: A Closer Look), (Activity: DNA Replication: A Review)

single-strand binding protein

Okazaki fragment

poly(A) tail

short pieces of DNA

RNA primer complementary to a preexisting DNA strand


23 . Which of these is responsible for catalyzing the formation of an RNA primer? (Activity: DNA Replication: A Review)



A

B

C

D

E


24 . An old DNA strand is used as a _____ for the assembly of a new DNA strand. (Activity: DNA Replication: An Overview), (Activity: DNA Replication: A Closer Look), (Activity: DNA Replication: A Review)

complement

primer

template

source of nucleotides

model




الأجوبة::

________________________________________
1. Not Answered This is an image of a _____. (Activity: The Hershey-Chase Experiment)

The Correct Answer: bacterium

________________________________________
2. Not Answered Who demonstrated that DNA is the genetic material of the T2 phage? (Activity: The Hershey-Chase Experiment)
The Correct Answer: Hershey and Chase

________________________________________
3. Not Answered The radioactive isotope 32P labels the T2 phage's _____. (Activity: The Hershey-Chase Experiment)
The Correct Answer: DNA

________________________________________
4. Not Answered Hershey and Chase used _____ to radioactively label the T2 phage's proteins. (Activity: The Hershey-Chase Experiment)
The Correct Answer: 35S

________________________________________
5. Not Answered After allowing phages grown with bacteria in a medium that contained 32P and 35S, Hershey and Chase used a centrifuge to separate the phage ghosts from the infected cell. They then examined the infected cells and found that they contained _____, which demonstrated that _____ is the phage's genetic material. (Activity: The Hershey-Chase Experiment)
The Correct Answer: labeled DNA ... DNA

________________________________________
6. Not Answered In the accompanying image, a nucleotide is indicated by the letter _____. (Activity: DNA and RNA Structure)

The Correct Answer: B

________________________________________
7. Not Answered Which of these is a difference between a DNA and an RNA molecule? (Activity: DNA and RNA Structure)
The Correct Answer: DNA is double-stranded, whereas RNA is single-stranded.

________________________________________
8. Not Answered This is an image of a(n) _____. (Activity: DNA and RNA Structure)

The Correct Answer: nucleotide

________________________________________
9. Not Answered The letter A indicates a _____. (Activity: DNA and RNA Structure)

The Correct Answer: phosphate group

________________________________________
10. Not Answered A nitrogenous base is indicated by the letter _____. (Activity: DNA and RNA Structure)

The Correct Answer: C

________________________________________
11. Not Answered You can tell that this is an image of a DNA nucleotide and not an RNA nucleotide because you see a _____. (Activity: DNA and RNA Structure)

The Correct Answer: sugar with two, and not three, oxygen atoms

________________________________________
12. Not Answered Which of these nitrogenous bases is found in DNA but not in RNA? (Activity: DNA and RNA Structure)
The Correct Answer: thymine

________________________________________
13. Not Answered Which of these is(are) pyrimidines? (Activity: DNA and RNA Structure)

The Correct Answer: C, D, and E

________________________________________
14. Not Answered In a nucleotide, the nitrogenous base is attached to the sugar's _____ carbon and the phosphate group is attached to the sugar's _____ carbon. (Activity: DNA and RNA Structure)
The Correct Answer: 1' ... 5'

________________________________________
15. Not Answered Nucleic acids are assembled in the _____ direction. (Activity: DNA and RNA Structure)
The Correct Answer: 5' to 3'

________________________________________
16. Not Answered In a DNA double helix an adenine of one strand always pairs with a(n) _____ of the complementary strand, and a guanine of one strand always pairs with a(n) _____ of the complementary strand. (Activity: DNA and RNA Structure),(Activity: DNA Double Helix), ( Activity: DNA Replication: A Closer Look)
The Correct Answer: thymine ... cytosine

________________________________________
17. Not Answered Short segments of newly synthesized DNA are joined into a continuous strand by _____. (Activity: DNA Replication: An Overview), (Activity: DNA Replication: A Review)
The Correct Answer: ligase

________________________________________
18. Not Answered After DNA replication is completed, _____. (Activity: DNA Replication: An Overview), (Activity: DNA Replication: A Closer Look), (Activity: DNA Replication: A Review)
The Correct Answer: each new DNA double helix consists of one old DNA strand and one new DNA strand

________________________________________
19. Not Answered The first step in the replication of DNA is catalyzed by _____. (Activity: DNA Replication: A Closer Look), (Activity: DNA Replication: A Review)
The Correct Answer: helicase

________________________________________
20. Not Answered The action of helicase creates _____. (Activity: DNA Replication: An Overview), (Activity: DNA Replication: A Closer Look), (Activity: DNA Replication: A Review)
The Correct Answer: replication forks and replication bubbles

________________________________________
21. Not Answered Why is the new DNA strand complementary to the 3' to 5' strands assembled in short segments? (Activity: DNA Replication: An Overview), (Activity: DNA Replication: A Closer Look), (Activity: DNA Replication: A Review)
The Correct Answer: DNA polymerase can assemble DNA only in the 5' to 3' direction

________________________________________
22. Not Answered The synthesis of a new strand begins with the synthesis of a(n) _____. (Activity: DNA Replication: A Closer Look), (Activity: DNA Replication: A Review)
The Correct Answer: RNA primer complementary to a preexisting DNA strand

________________________________________
23. Not Answered Which of these is responsible for catalyzing the formation of an RNA primer? (Activity: DNA Replication: A Review)


The Correct Answer: D

________________________________________
24. Not Answered An old DNA strand is used as a _____ for the assembly of a new DNA strand. (Activity: DNA Replication: An Overview), (Activity: DNA Replication: A Closer Look), (Activity: DNA Replication: A Review)
The Correct Answer: template


...
Chapter 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance





Chapter Quiz



1 . During Griffith's experiments with Streptococcus pneumoniae in mice, material from _____ bacteria transformed _____ bacteria. (Concept 16.1 ) [Hint]

living nonvirulent ... living virulent

living nonvirulent ... heat-killed virulent

living virulent ... heat-killed nonvirulent

heat-killed virulent ... living nonvirulent

heat-killed nonvirulent ... living virulent


2 . Avery and his colleagues' 1944 experiment showed that DNA _____. (Concept 16.1 ) [Hint]

was the substance that transformed the bacteria in Griffith's experiment

consists of sugars, phosphate groups, and bases

has two strands held together with hydrogen bonds

uses three bases to code for one amino acid

contains adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine


3 . A scientist assembles a bacteriophage with the protein coat of phage T2 and the DNA of phage T4. If this composite phage were allowed to infect a bacterium, the phages produced in the host cell would have _____. (Concept 16.1 ) [Hint]

the protein of T2 and the DNA of T4

the protein of T4 and the DNA of T2

a mixture of the DNA and proteins of both phages

the protein and DNA of T2

the protein and DNA of T4


4 . In an important experiment, a radioactively labeled bacteriophage was allowed to infect bacteria. In a first trial, the phage contained radioactive DNA, and radioactivity was detected inside the bacteria. Next, phage containing radioactive protein was used, and the radioactivity was not detected inside the bacteria. These experiments led to the conclusion that _____. (Concept 16.1 ) [Hint]

the genetic material of the phage is DNA

bacteriophages can infect bacteria

DNA is made of nucleotides

the genetic material of the phage is protein

genes are on chromosomes


5 . Monomers for the synthesis of DNA are called _____. (Concept 16.1 ) [Hint]

amino acids

fatty acids

nucleotides

monosaccharides

disaccharides


6 . Which one of the following is not true about double-stranded DNA? (Concept 16.1 ) [Hint]

It is helical.

It contains phosphodiester linkages.

The two strands are complementary.

Adenine and uracil are present in equal amounts.

The strands run antiparallel.


7 . Chargaff found that for DNA _____. (Concept 16.1 ) [Hint]

the ratio of A to C is close to 1:1 and the ratio of G to T is close to 1:1

the ratio of A to T is close to 1:1 and the ratio of G to C is close to 1:1

the ratio of A to G is close to 1:1 and the ratio of T to C is close to 1:1

A + T = G + C

A + T = 50% of the total bases


8 . What technique was most helpful to Watson and Crick in developing their model for the structure of DNA? (Concept 16.1 ) [Hint]

radioactive labeling

X-ray crystallography

electrophoresis

cloned DNA

transgenic animals


9 . In DNA, the two purines are _____, and the two pyrimidines are _____. (Concept 16.1 ) [Hint]

cytosine and guanine ... adenine and thymine

cytosine and thymine ... adenine and guanine

adenine and guanine ... cytosine and thymine

adenine and thymine ... cytosine and guanine

adenine and cytosine ... guanine and thymine


10 . Which of the following is correct? (Concept 16.1 ) [Hint]

Adenine forms two hydrogen bonds with guanine; thymine forms three hydrogen bonds with cytosine.

Adenine forms three hydrogen bonds with thymine; guanine forms two hydrogen bonds with cytosine.

Adenine forms two covalent bonds with thymine; guanine forms three covalent bonds with cytosine.

Adenine forms two hydrogen bonds with thymine; guanine forms three hydrogen bonds with cytosine.

Adenine forms three covalent bonds with thymine; guanine forms two covalent bonds with cytosine.


11 . The two sugar-phosphate strands of a DNA molecule are joined to each other through _____. (Concept 16.1 ) [Hint]

5' deoxyribose and phosphate bonds

hydrogen bonds between nucleotide bases

covalent bonds between nitrogen atoms in adenine and in thymine

covalent bonds between carbon atoms in deoxyribose molecules

ionic bonds between guanine and cytosine


12 . The information in DNA is contained in _____. (Concept 16.1 ) [Hint]

the variation in the structure of nucleotides that make up the DNA molecule

the types of sugars used in making the DNA molecule

the sequence of amino acids that make up the DNA molecule

the sequence of nucleotides along the length of the two strands of the DNA molecule

all of the above


13 . Who is credited with discovering the structure of the DNA double helix? (Concept 16.1 ) [Hint]

Jacob and Monod

Watson and Crick

Avery, McCarty, and MacLeod

Griffith

Hershey and Chase


14 . During the replication of DNA, _____. (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

both strands of a molecule act as templates

the reaction is catalyzed by RNA polymerase

errors never occur

only one strand of the molecule acts as a template

the cell undergoes mitosis


15 . The experiments of Meselson and Stahl showed that DNA _____. (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

is the genetic material

replicates in a semiconservative fashion

contains complementary base pairing

codes for the sequence of amino acids in proteins

is composed of nucleotides


16 . The DNA structures of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are different in several ways, but one way in which they are the same is that _____. (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

both have a sugar-phosphate backbone

histones are present in the nucleosomes

the DNA is packaged into several linear chromosomes

most of the DNA is in the form of plasmids

both have a single circular chromosome


17 . Which of the following statements about replication origins is incorrect? (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

Bacterial chromosomes have a single origin, but eukaryotic chromosomes have many origins.

In bacteria, the DNA sequence at the origin is recognized by specific proteins that then bind to the origin.

The two strands of DNA at the origin are separated, allowing the formation of a replication bubble.

In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, replication proceeds in both directions from each origin.

None of the above.


18 . At each end of a DNA replication bubble is _____. (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

an origin of replication

a gene

a telomere

a replication fork

a ribosome


19 . The role of DNA polymerases in DNA replication is to _____. (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

attach free nucleotides to the new strand

synthesize an RNA primer to initiate DNA strand synthesis

link together short strands of DNA

separate the two strands of DNA

all of the above


20 . The rate of elongation in prokaryotes is _____ the rate in eukaryotes. (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

much slower than

at about the same speed as

much faster than

sometimes faster and sometimes slower than

The rates are not comparable, since elongation only occurs in prokaryotes.


21 . The two strands of a DNA double helix are antiparallel. This means that _____. (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

the two strands are mirror images

only one of the two strands can be used as a template for replication, because DNA polymerase only works in one direction

one strand is actually composed of RNA

one strand runs in the 5' to 3' direction, and the other runs in the 3' to 5' direction

they both run in the 3' to 5' direction


22 . One strand of a DNA molecule has the base sequence 5'-ATAGGT-3'. The complementary base sequence on the other strand of DNA will be 3'-_______-5'. (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

TATCCA

TGGATA

TGGAUA

UAUCCA

ATAGGT


23 . DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the _____ of the leading strands, and to the _____ of the lagging strands (Okazaki fragments). (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

5' end ... 3' end

3' end ... 5' end

5' end ... 5' end

3' end ... 3' end

sugar group ... phosphate group


24 . What enzyme joins Okazaki fragments? (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

DNA polymerase

DNA ligase

topoisomerase

helicase

primase


25 . After the formation of a replication bubble, which of the following is the correct sequence of enzymes used for the synthesis of the lagging DNA strand? (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

primase, helicases, DNA polymerase, ligase

helicases, primase, ligase, DNA polymerase

helicases, primase, DNA polymerase, ligase

helicases, DNA polymerase, primase, ligase

ligase, primase, DNA polymerase, helicases


26 . Which of the following components is (are) required for DNA replication? (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

ribosomes

transfer RNA

RNA primer

RNA polymerase

all of the above


27 . The removal of the RNA primer and addition of DNA nucleotides to the 3' end of Okazaki fragments in its place is carried out by _____. (Concept 16.1 ) [Hint]

nuclease

primase

DNA polymerase I

DNA polymerase III

ligase


28 . The unwinding of DNA at the replication fork causes twisting and strain in the DNA ahead of the fork, which is relieved by an enzyme called _____. (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

relievase

primase

ligase

topoisomerase

ribosomes


29 . Once the DNA at the replication fork is unwound by helicases, what prevents the two strands from coming back together to reform a double helix? (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

The helicase modifies the DNA in such a way as to eliminate the affinity between the two strands.

DNA polymerase follows the helicase so closely that there is no chance for the strands to come back together.

Single-strand binding proteins bind the unwound DNA and prevent the double helix from reforming.

The helicase pushes the two strands so far apart that they have no chance of finding each other.

One of the strands is rapidly degraded, preventing the double helix from reforming.


30 . Which description of DNA replication is correct? (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

Helicases separate the two strands of the double helix, and DNA polymerases then construct two new strands using each of the original strands as templates.

Ligase assembles single-stranded codons, then polymerase knits these codons together into a DNA strand.

The two strands of DNA separate, and restriction enzymes cut up one strand. Then polymerase synthesizes two new strands out of the old ones.

The two strands separate, and each one receives a complementary strand of RNA. Then this RNA serves as a template for the assembly of many new strands of DNA.

Ligase separates the two strands of the DNA double helix. Then DNA polymerase synthesizes the leading strand and primase synthesizes the lagging strand.


31 . The text describes reasons why it is not accurate to compare DNA replication by polymerases to a locomotive moving down the track. Which of the statements below is not a proper explanation of why this comparison is inaccurate? (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

Instead of moving along the DNA, the DNA polymerase "reels in" the DNA much like a sewing machine pulls material toward its needle.

The replication machinery is far more complex than a train on a track.

More than one train can be on the same track, but only one DNA polymerase can be on a given chromosome at any given time.

All of the above.

None of the above.


32 . The overall error rate in the completed DNA molecule is approximately _____. (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

1 error per 100 nucleotides

1 error per 1,000 nucleotides

1 error per 1,000,000 nucleotides

1 error per 1,000,000,000 nucleotides

1 error per 10,000,000,000 nucleotides


33 . The incorporation of an incorrect base into the DNA during replication _____. (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

will almost certainly lead to the death of the cell

cannot be repaired, and a new mutation will invariably result

will trigger the cell to destroy the new strand, and replication will begin again

can be repaired by the mismatch repair system

is virtually impossible, as the accuracy of DNA polymerase is such that errors almost never occur


34 . Which of the following enzymes is not involved in nucleotide excision repair? (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

nuclease

DNA polymerase

ligase

primase


35 . Individuals with the disorder xeroderma pigmentosum _____. (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

are hypersensitive to sunlight

have high rates of skin cancer

often have inherited defects in the nucleotide excision repair system

have difficulty repairing thymine dimers

all of the above


36 . Unlike prokaryotic DNA replication, replication of eukaryotic chromosomes _____. (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

involves two leading strands and no lagging strands

cannot be completed by DNA polymerase

is semiconservative

has a single origin

is error free


37 . Telomeres _____. (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

get longer with continued cell division

are found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

remain the same regardless of the frequency of cell division

get shorter with continued cell division

are shorter for younger individuals


38 . Telomerase _____. (Concept 16.2 ) [Hint]

is an enzyme made up of protein and RNA that lengthens telomeres

prevents the loss of centromeric DNA

speeds cell aging

slows the rate of cancer cell growth

splits telomeres




الأجوبة

________________________________________
1. Not Answered During Griffith's experiments with Streptococcus pneumoniae in mice, material from _____ bacteria transformed _____ bacteria. (Concept 16.1 )
The Correct Answer: heat-killed virulent ... living nonvirulent

________________________________________
2. Not Answered Avery and his colleagues' 1944 experiment showed that DNA _____. (Concept 16.1 )
The Correct Answer: was the substance that transformed the bacteria in Griffith's experiment

________________________________________
3. Not Answered A scientist assembles a bacteriophage with the protein coat of phage T2 and the DNA of phage T4. If this composite phage were allowed to infect a bacterium, the phages produced in the host cell would have _____. (Concept 16.1 )
The Correct Answer: the protein and DNA of T4

________________________________________
4. Not Answered In an important experiment, a radioactively labeled bacteriophage was allowed to infect bacteria. In a first trial, the phage contained radioactive DNA, and radioactivity was detected inside the bacteria. Next, phage containing radioactive protein was used, and the radioactivity was not detected inside the bacteria. These experiments led to the conclusion that _____. (Concept 16.1 )
The Correct Answer: the genetic material of the phage is DNA

________________________________________
5. Not Answered Monomers for the synthesis of DNA are called _____. (Concept 16.1 )
The Correct Answer: nucleotides

________________________________________
6. Not Answered Which one of the following is not true about double-stranded DNA? (Concept 16.1 )
The Correct Answer: Adenine and uracil are present in equal amounts.

________________________________________
7. Not Answered Chargaff found that for DNA _____. (Concept 16.1 )
The Correct Answer: the ratio of A to T is close to 1:1 and the ratio of G to C is close to 1:1

________________________________________
8. Not Answered What technique was most helpful to Watson and Crick in developing their model for the structure of DNA? (Concept 16.1 )
The Correct Answer: X-ray crystallography

________________________________________
9. Not Answered In DNA, the two purines are _____, and the two pyrimidines are _____. (Concept 16.1 )
The Correct Answer: adenine and guanine ... cytosine and thymine

________________________________________
10. Not Answered Which of the following is correct? (Concept 16.1 )
The Correct Answer: Adenine forms two hydrogen bonds with thymine; guanine forms three hydrogen bonds with cytosine.

________________________________________
11. Not Answered The two sugar-phosphate strands of a DNA molecule are joined to each other through _____. (Concept 16.1 )
The Correct Answer: hydrogen bonds between nucleotide bases

________________________________________
12. Not Answered The information in DNA is contained in _____. (Concept 16.1 )
The Correct Answer: the sequence of nucleotides along the length of the two strands of the DNA molecule

________________________________________
13. Not Answered Who is credited with discovering the structure of the DNA double helix? (Concept 16.1 )
The Correct Answer: Watson and Crick

________________________________________
14. Not Answered During the replication of DNA, _____. (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: both strands of a molecule act as templates

________________________________________
15. Not Answered The experiments of Meselson and Stahl showed that DNA _____. (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: replicates in a semiconservative fashion

________________________________________
16. Not Answered The DNA structures of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are different in several ways, but one way in which they are the same is that _____. (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: both have a sugar-phosphate backbone

________________________________________
17. Not Answered Which of the following statements about replication origins is incorrect? (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: None of the above.

________________________________________
18. Not Answered At each end of a DNA replication bubble is _____. (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: a replication fork

________________________________________
19. Not Answered The role of DNA polymerases in DNA replication is to _____. (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: attach free nucleotides to the new strand

________________________________________
20. Not Answered The rate of elongation in prokaryotes is _____ the rate in eukaryotes. (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: much faster than

________________________________________
21. Not Answered The two strands of a DNA double helix are antiparallel. This means that _____. (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: one strand runs in the 5' to 3' direction, and the other runs in the 3' to 5' direction

________________________________________
22. Not Answered One strand of a DNA molecule has the base sequence 5'-ATAGGT-3'. The complementary base sequence on the other strand of DNA will be 3'-_______-5'. (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: TATCCA

________________________________________
23. Not Answered DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the _____ of the leading strands, and to the _____ of the lagging strands (Okazaki fragments). (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: 3' end ... 3' end

________________________________________
24. Not Answered What enzyme joins Okazaki fragments? (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: DNA ligase

________________________________________
25. Not Answered After the formation of a replication bubble, which of the following is the correct sequence of enzymes used for the synthesis of the lagging DNA strand? (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: helicases, primase, DNA polymerase, ligase

________________________________________
26. Not Answered Which of the following components is (are) required for DNA replication? (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: RNA primer

________________________________________
27. Not Answered The removal of the RNA primer and addition of DNA nucleotides to the 3' end of Okazaki fragments in its place is carried out by _____. (Concept 16.1 )
The Correct Answer: DNA polymerase I

________________________________________
28. Not Answered The unwinding of DNA at the replication fork causes twisting and strain in the DNA ahead of the fork, which is relieved by an enzyme called _____. (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: topoisomerase

________________________________________
29. Not Answered Once the DNA at the replication fork is unwound by helicases, what prevents the two strands from coming back together to reform a double helix? (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: Single-strand binding proteins bind the unwound DNA and prevent the double helix from reforming.

________________________________________
30. Not Answered Which description of DNA replication is correct? (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: Helicases separate the two strands of the double helix, and DNA polymerases then construct two new strands using each of the original strands as templates.

________________________________________
31. Not Answered The text describes reasons why it is not accurate to compare DNA replication by polymerases to a locomotive moving down the track. Which of the statements below is not a proper explanation of why this comparison is inaccurate? (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: More than one train can be on the same track, but only one DNA polymerase can be on a given chromosome at any given time.

________________________________________
32. Not Answered The overall error rate in the completed DNA molecule is approximately _____. (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: 1 error per 10,000,000,000 nucleotides

________________________________________
33. Not Answered The incorporation of an incorrect base into the DNA during replication _____. (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: can be repaired by the mismatch repair system

________________________________________
34. Not Answered Which of the following enzymes is not involved in nucleotide excision repair? (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: primase

________________________________________
35. Not Answered Individuals with the disorder xeroderma pigmentosum _____. (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: all of the above

________________________________________
36. Not Answered Unlike prokaryotic DNA replication, replication of eukaryotic chromosomes _____. (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: cannot be completed by DNA polymerase

________________________________________
37. Not Answered Telomeres _____. (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: get shorter with continued cell division

________________________________________
38. Not Answered Telomerase _____. (Concept 16.2 )
The Correct Answer: is an enzyme made up of protein and RNA that lengthens telomeres

طموحي الجنون
26th May 2009, 04:17 PM
شابتر 17




Chapter 17: From Gene to Protein





Activities Quiz



1 . Click to open the animation. What name is given to the process in which a strand of DNA is used as a template for the manufacture of a strand of pre-mRNA? (Activity: Overview of Protein Synthesis)

RNA processing

gene expression

polypeptide formation

transcription

translation


2 . Click to open the animation. What name is given to the process in which the information encoded in a strand of mRNA is used to construct a protein? (Activity: Overview of Protein Synthesis)

RNA processing

gene expression

polypeptide formation

transcription

translation


3 . Click to open the animation. _____ is the process in which pre-mRNA is edited into mRNA. (Activity: Overview of Protein Synthesis)

RNA processing

Gene expression

Polypeptide formation

Transcription

Translation


4 . Polypeptides are assembled from _____. (Activity: Overview of Protein Synthesis)

hexoses

glycerol

nucleotides

proteins

amino acids


5 . RNA processing converts the RNA transcript into _____. (Activity: Overview of Protein Synthesis)

a protein

DNA

a eukaryotic cell

mRNA

a polypeptide


6 . Click to open the animation. The gray unit in this animation represents _____. (Activity: Transcription)

RNA

DNA

transcription factors

RNA polymerase

the promoter


7 . Click to open the animation. The green unit in this animation represents _____. (Activity: Transcription)

RNA

DNA

transcription factors

RNA polymerase

the promoter


8 . Click to open the animation. The two blue strands in this animation represents _____. (Activity: Transcription)
[Hint]

RNA

DNA

transcription factors

RNA polymerase

the promoter


9 . Which of these correctly illustrates the pairing of DNA and RNA nucleotides? (Activity: Transcription)

GTTACG
CAATCG


GTTACG
CAAUGC


GTTACG
GTTACG


GTTACG
ACCGTA


GTTACG
UAACAU



10 . The direction of synthesis of an RNA transcript is _____. (Activity: Transcription)

1' —> 5'

5' —> 3'

1' —> 3'

3' —> 5'

2' —> 4'


11 . During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 5' end of the RNA. (Activity: RNA Processing)

3' untranslated region

a long string of adenine nucleotides

5' untranslated region

coding segment

modified guanine nucleotide


12 . During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 3' end of the RNA. (Activity: RNA Processing)

3' untranslated region

a long string of adenine nucleotides

5' untranslated region

coding segment

modified guanine nucleotide


13 . Spliceosomes are composed of _____. (Activity: RNA Processing)

snRNPs and other proteins

polymerases and ligases

introns and exons

the RNA transcript and protein

snRNPs and snurps


14 . The RNA segments joined to one another by spliceosomes are _____. (Activity: RNA Processing)

caps

exons

snRNPs

tails

introns


15 . Translation occurs in the _____. (Activity: RNA Processing)

cytoplasm

lysosome

nucleus

mitochondrion

nucleoplasm


16 . Which of these is a tRNA? (Activity: Translation)


A

B

C

D

E


17 . What enzyme catalyzes the attachment of an amino acid to tRNA? (Activity: Translation)

aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase

rubisco

dextrinase

argininosuccinate lyase

nuclease


18 . The tRNA anticodon, GAC, is complementary to the mRNA codon with the sequence _____. (Activity: Translation)

CAG

CTG

GAC

CUG

TCG


19 . Click to open the animation. What name is given to this process? (Activity: Translation)

initiation (of transcription)

RNA processing

initiation (of translation)

elongation

termination (of translation)


20 . The initiator tRNA attaches at the ribosome's _____ site. (Activity: Translation)

A

translocation

E

P

Q




الأجوبة::

________________________________________
1. Not Answered Click on the diagram to start the animation. What name is given to the process in which a strand of DNA is used as a template for the manufacture of a strand of pre-mRNA? (Activity: Overview of Protein Synthesis)


The Correct Answer: transcription

________________________________________
2. Not Answered Click on the diagram to start the animation. What name is given to the process in which the information encoded in a strand of mRNA is used to construct a protein? (Activity: Overview of Protein Synthesis)


The Correct Answer: translation

________________________________________
3. Not Answered Click on the diagram to start the animation. _____ is the process in which pre-mRNA is edited into mRNA. (Activity: Overview of Protein Synthesis)


The Correct Answer: RNA processing

________________________________________
4. Not Answered Polypeptides are assembled from _____. (Activity: Overview of Protein Synthesis)
The Correct Answer: amino acids

________________________________________
5. Not Answered RNA processing converts the RNA transcript into _____. (Activity: Overview of Protein Synthesis)
The Correct Answer: mRNA

________________________________________
6. Not Answered Click on the diagram to start the animation. The gray unit in this animation represents _____. (Activity: Transcription)

The Correct Answer: RNA polymerase

________________________________________
7. Not Answered Click on the diagram to start the animation. The green unit in this animation represents _____. (Activity: Transcription)

The Correct Answer: the promoter

________________________________________
8. Not Answered Click on the diagram to start the animation. The two blue strands in this animation represents _____. (Activity: Transcription)

The Correct Answer: DNA

________________________________________
9. Not Answered Which of these correctly illustrates the pairing of DNA and RNA nucleotides? (Activity: Transcription)
The Correct Answer:
GTTACG
CAAUGC


________________________________________
10. Not Answered The direction of synthesis of an RNA transcript is _____. (Activity: Transcription)
The Correct Answer: 5' —> 3'

________________________________________
11. Not Answered During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 5' end of the RNA. (Activity: RNA Processing)
The Correct Answer: modified guanine nucleotide

________________________________________
12. Not Answered During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 3' end of the RNA. (Activity: RNA Processing)
The Correct Answer: a long string of adenine nucleotides

________________________________________
13. Not Answered Spliceosomes are composed of _____. (Activity: RNA Processing)
The Correct Answer: snRNPs and other proteins

________________________________________
14. Not Answered The RNA segments joined to one another by spliceosomes are _____. (Activity: RNA Processing)
The Correct Answer: exons

________________________________________
15. Not Answered Translation occurs in the _____. (Activity: RNA Processing)
The Correct Answer: cytoplasm

________________________________________
16. Not Answered Which of these is a tRNA? (Activity: Translation)

The Correct Answer: B

________________________________________
17. Not Answered What enzyme catalyzes the attachment of an amino acid to tRNA? (Activity: Translation)
The Correct Answer: aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase

________________________________________
18. Not Answered The tRNA anticodon, GAC, is complementary to the mRNA codon with the sequence _____. (Activity: Translation)
The Correct Answer: CUG

________________________________________
19. Not Answered Click on the diagram to start the animation. What name is given to this process? (Activity: Translation)

The Correct Answer: initiation (of translation)

________________________________________
20. Not Answered The initiator tRNA attaches at the ribosome's _____ site. (Activity: Translation)
The Correct Answer: P


....
Chapter 17: From Gene to Protein





Chapter Quiz



1 . Who formulated the one gene–one enzyme hypothesis? (Concept 17.1 ) [Hint]

Watson and Crick

Beadle and Tatum

Hershey and Chase

Franklin

none of the above


2 . Genetic information of eukaryotic cells is transferred from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the form of _____. (Concept 17.1 ) [Hint]

proteins

lipids

RNA

carbohydrates

DNA


3 . Which one of the following statements is true? (Concept 17.1 ) [Hint]

Each DNA base codes for three amino acids.

Each gene codes for three proteins.

It takes three genes to code for one protein.

Each triplet has many different meanings.

Each amino acid in a protein is coded for by three bases in the DNA.


4 . When RNA is being made, the RNA base _____ always pairs with the base _____ in DNA. (Concept 17.1 ) [Hint]

U ... T

T ... G

U ... A

A ... U

T ... A


5 . Which one of the following is not associated with RNA? (Concept 17.1 ) [Hint]

ribose

thymine

uracil

phosphates

single-strandedness


6 . What mRNA codon would be made from the DNA triplet CGT? (Concept 17.1 ) [Hint]

ATU

GCA

TCU

CTA

UCG


7 . The number of nucleotide bases "read" together on the mRNA to designate each amino acid is _____; this unit is called a(n) _____. (Concept 17.1 ) [Hint]

2 ... dipeptide

3 ... triose

2 ... anticodon

3 ... codon

1 ... amino acid


8 . The codons AAA, CCC, GGG, and UUU specify the amino acids lysine, proline, glycine, and phenylalanine, respectively. Which of the following DNA sequences would specify the peptide pro-gly-lys-phe if present in the template strand? (Concept 17.1 ) [Hint]

3'-CCCGGGAAATTT-5'

3'-CCCGGGAAAUUU-5'

3'-GGGCCCTTTAAA-5'

5'-GGGCCCUUUAAA-3'

5'-GGGCCCTTTAAA-3'


9 . The codons AAA, CCC, GGG, and UUU specify the amino acids lysine, proline, glycine, and phenylalanine, respectively. What peptide sequence would be encoded by the sequence 5'-CCCAAATTTGGG-3', if present in the coding strand of the DNA? (Concept 17.1 ) [Hint]

lys-pro-gly-phe

pro-lys-phe-gly

gly-phe-lys-pro

phe-gly-pro-lys

gly-phe-pro-lys


10 . How many nucleotides are needed to code for a protein with 450 amino acids? (Concept 17.1 ) [Hint]

at least 150

at least 300

at least 450

at least 900

at least 1,350


11 . In many cases, more than one codon codes for the same amino acid. Because of this, we say that the code is _____. (Concept 17.1 ) [Hint]

inaccurate

incomplete

not specific

redundant

tricky


12 . At one point as a cell carried out its day-to-day activities, the nucleotides GAT were paired with the nucleotides CUA. This pairing occurred _____. (Concept 17.2 ) [Hint]

in a double-stranded DNA molecule

during translation

during transcription

when an mRNA codon paired with a tRNA anticodon

It is impossible to say, given this information.


13 . Which one of the following catalyzes the linkage between ribonucleotides to form RNA during gene expression? (Concept 17.2 ) [Hint]

RNA polymerase

RNA ligase

a ribozyme

reverse transcriptase

tRNA


14 . In eukaryotic cells, a terminator in mRNA synthesis is _____. (Concept 17.2 ) [Hint]

an enzyme whose specific function is to stop synthesis

a molecule of tRNA that recognizes a stop codon

a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that signals the RNA polymerase to stop

a specific nucleotide sequence in mRNA that signals the RNA polymerase to stop

none of the above


15 . In a eukaryotic cell, transcription takes place _____. (Concept 17.2 ) [Hint]

on the cell membrane

in the rough endoplasmic reticulum

in the cytoplasm

on free ribosomes

in the nucleus


16 . One strand of a DNA molecule has the following sequence: 3'-AGTACAAACTATCCACCGTC-5'. In order for transcription to occur in that strand, there would have to be a specific recognition sequence, called a(n) _____, to the left of the DNA sequence indicated. (Concept 17.2 ) [Hint]

centromere

intron

exon

AUG codon

promoter


17 . During the transcription of a given portion of a DNA molecule _____. (Concept 17.2 ) [Hint]

mRNA is synthesized on both chains of the DNA molecule at once

mRNA is synthesized on both chains of the DNA molecule, but first on one side and then the other

mRNA is synthesized on only one of the chains

half of the mRNA is synthesized on half of one chain; then the other half of the mRNA is made on the other half of the DNA

any of the above patterns may be found


18 . In transcription, _____. (Concept 17.2 ) [Hint]

the promoter region acts as an initial binding site for RNA polymerase

only one of the DNA strands is used as the template

the RNA nucleotides used are produced by the cell

all of the above

none of the above


19 . In eukaryotes, which of the following mechanisms of gene regulation operates after transcription, but before translation of mRNA into protein? (Concept 17.3 ) [Hint]

RNA splicing and editing

DNA packing

action of repressors and activators

protein degradation

all of the above


20 . Usually, in eukaryotic genes _____. (Concept 17.3 ) [Hint]

exons are not transcribed

introns are not transcribed

exons are transcribed, but the RNA transcribed from introns does not leave the nucleus

both introns and exons are transcribed, but the RNA transcribed from them does not leave the nucleus

exons and introns are transcribed, and the RNA transcribed from them leaves the nucleus


21 . Which one of the following statements correctly describes mRNA processing? (Concept 17.3 ) [Hint]

Introns are cut out of the primary transcript, and the resulting exons are spliced together.

Exons are cut out of the primary transcript, and the introns are spliced together.

Introns are cut out of the primary transcript and spliced together at the end of the transcript.

Exons are cut out of the primary transcript and transported to the endoplasmic reticulum.

Introns are cut out of the primary transcript and transported to the ribosomes.


22 . The structures called snRNPs are _____. (Concept 17.3 ) [Hint]

part of a spliceosome

involved in the removal of exons from DNA

a type of specialized carbohydrate

a critical component of the initiation complex

all of the above


23 . Nuclei of eukaryotic cells contain spliceosomes that are made up of _____. (Concept 17.3 ) [Hint]

snRNA

snRNA and tRNA

snRNA and DNA

snRNA and protein

DNA and protein


24 . A cell biologist found that two different proteins with largely different structures were translated from two different mRNAs. These mRNAs, however, were transcribed from the same template within the cell nucleus. Which mechanism below could best account for this? (Concept 17.3 ) [Hint]

Different systems of DNA unpacking could result in two different mRNAs.

A mutation might have altered the gene.

Exons from the same gene could be spliced in different ways to make different mRNAs.

Different transcription factors were involved in the transcription of the two mRNAs.

The two proteins have different functions in the cell.


25 . The function of tRNA during protein synthesis is to _____. (Concept 17.4 ) [Hint]

deliver amino acids to their proper site during protein synthesis

guide ribosome subunits out of the nucleus through nuclear pores

attach mRNA to the small subunit of the ribosome

process mRNA

transcribe mRNA


26 . Which of the following summaries of protein synthesis is correct? (Concept 17.4 ) [Hint]

DNA transposons leave the nucleus, are transported to a ribosome, and catalyze the polymerization of amino acids in a protein.

DNA exchanges its thymine units with uracil in polymerase. This activates polymerase, and it starts joining amino acids together.

Transfer RNAs line up on a ribosome, and amino acids bind to them with hydrogen bonds.

Messenger RNA is made on a DNA template, and then amino-acid-bearing transfer RNAs bind to it through codon-anticodon pairing.

None of the above.


27 . The bonds that hold tRNA molecules in the correct three-dimensional shape are _____. (Concept 17.4 ) [Hint]

peptide linkages

hydrophobic interactions

covalent bonds

ionic bonds

hydrogen bonds


28 . The translation process in eukaryotes requires all of the following, except _____. (Concept 17.4 ) [Hint]

ribosomes

RNA polymerase

aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzymes

transfer RNA

AUG codons


29 . During translation in a eukaryotic cell _____. (Concept 17.4 ) [Hint]

ribosomes move into the nucleus

tRNA carries amino acid molecules to the nucleus, where they are added to a growing polypeptide chain

polypeptides are synthesized at ribosomes, according to instructions carried by mRNA

mRNA is synthesized by the bonding of free nucleotides to the bases on the template strand of DNA

ribosomes move out of the nucleus


30 . The P site of a ribosome does which one of the following? (Concept 17.4 ) [Hint]

It holds the tRNA that is carrying the next amino acid to be added to the growing polypeptide chain.

It holds the growing polypeptide chain.

It helps "unzip" DNA during transcription.

It catalyzes the addition of amino acids to the tRNAs.

It recognizes the promoter during transcription initiation.


31 . The first amino acid inserted into a new polypeptide chain in eukaryotic cells is always _____. (Concept 17.4 ) [Hint]

glycine

serine

methionine

adenosine monophosphate

alanine


32 . A sequence of pictures of polypeptide synthesis shows a ribosome holding two transfer RNAs. One tRNA has a polypeptide chain attached to it; the other tRNA has a single amino acid attached to it. What does the next picture show? (Concept 17.4 ) [Hint]

The polypeptide chain is transferred to the single amino acid.

The tRNA with the single amino acid leaves the ribosome.

The amino acid is transferred to the polypeptide chain.

The tRNA with the polypeptide chain leaves the ribosome.

A third tRNA with an amino acid joins the pair on the ribosome.


33 . During translation, amino acid chain elongation occurs until _____. (Concept 17.4 ) [Hint]

no further amino acids are needed by the cell

all tRNAs are empty

the polypeptide is long enough

the ribosome encounters a "stop" codon

the ribosome runs off the end of the mRNA strand


34 . Polysomes may be defined as _____. (Concept 17.4 ) [Hint]

microfilaments and microtubules

groups of lysosomes

groups of ribosomes

groups of chromosomes

groups of peroxisomes


35 . Cells are able to distinguish proteins destined for secretion or for segregation to specific intracellular compartments from those that will remain in the cytoplasm because _____. (Concept 17.4 ) [Hint]

there are two types of ribosomes: one group that synthesizes cytoplasmic proteins only, and another type that synthesizes secreted or compartment-specific proteins only

some proteins, as they begin to be synthesized, contain a signal region that causes the ribosome with its growing polypeptide to attach to the ER and translocate the polypeptide into the lumen (space) of the ER

proteins destined for secretion or for a specific compartment are all synthesized in the nucleus, whereas cytoplasmic proteins are all synthesized in the cytoplasm

each compartment in the cell (the nucleus, lysosome, and so forth) has its own set of ribosomes that synthesize proteins unique to that compartment

ribosomes contain two types of subunits


36 . What is the proper order of the following events in the expression of a eukaryotic gene?

1. translation

2. RNA processing

3. transcription

4. modification of protein

(Concept 17.4 ) [Hint]

1, 2, 3, 4

3, 2, 1, 4

4, 2, 3,1

2 ,3, 4, 1

1, 2, 4, 3


37 . What is a key difference in gene expression between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells? (Concept 17.6 ) [Hint]

In prokaryotes, proteins are assembled directly from DNA.

RNA polymerases are involved only in initiation in eukaryotes.

In prokaryotic cells, the mRNA transcript is immediately available as mRNA without processing.

In eukaryotic cells, transcribed RNA sequences function as termination signals.

Prokaryotes do not contain ribosomes.


38 . A geneticist found that a particular mutation had no effect on the polypeptide encoded by the gene. This mutation probably involved _____. (Concept 17.7 ) [Hint]

deletion of one nucleotide

a missense mutation

insertion of one nucleotide

a nonsense mutation

a silent mutation


39 . Which one of the following types of mutation is least likely to affect the function of the protein corresponding to the gene in which the mutation occurs? (Concept 17.7 ) [Hint]

addition of single bases

base-pair substitution

transposition

deletion of single bases

nonsense mutation


40 . A base-pair substitution mutation in a germ cell line is likely to have no effect on phenotype if the substitution _____. (Concept 17.7 ) [Hint]

forms a new stop codon

occurs in an intron

changes a stop codon to a codon specifying an amino acid

changes the structure of an enzyme

prevents the initiation of transcription of the DNA sequence that codes for ATP synthase


41 . A virus infects a cell and randomly inserts many short segments of DNA containing a stop codon throughout the organism's chromosomes. This will probably cause _____. (Concept 17.7 ) [Hint]

manufactured proteins to be short and defective

the DNA to break up into thousands of short segments

incorrect pairing between mRNA codons and amino acids

no bad effects, as long as the stop codons are not also inserted into tRNA

all of the above


42 . A point mutation in which a single base pair is inserted or deleted from DNA is called a(n) _____. (Concept 17.7 ) [Hint]

nonsense mutation

frame-shift mutation

inversion mutation

translocation mutation

missense mutation


43 . Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging to cells because it _____. (Concept 17.7 ) [Hint]

pokes holes in the nuclear envelope

blocks all translation

causes mutations in the DNA

deactivates the enzymes needed for DNA replication

shreds the cytoskeleton




الأجوبة::

________________________________________
1. Not Answered Who formulated the one gene–one enzyme hypothesis? (Concept 17.1 )
The Correct Answer: Beadle and Tatum

________________________________________
2. Not Answered Genetic information of eukaryotic cells is transferred from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in the form of _____. (Concept 17.1 )
The Correct Answer: RNA

________________________________________
3. Not Answered Which one of the following statements is true? (Concept 17.1 )
The Correct Answer: Each amino acid in a protein is coded for by three bases in the DNA.

________________________________________
4. Not Answered When RNA is being made, the RNA base _____ always pairs with the base _____ in DNA. (Concept 17.1 )
The Correct Answer: U ... A

________________________________________
5. Not Answered Which one of the following is not associated with RNA? (Concept 17.1 )
The Correct Answer: thymine

________________________________________
6. Not Answered What mRNA codon would be made from the DNA triplet CGT? (Concept 17.1 )
The Correct Answer: GCA

________________________________________
7. Not Answered The number of nucleotide bases "read" together on the mRNA to designate each amino acid is _____; this unit is called a(n) _____. (Concept 17.1 )
The Correct Answer: 3 ... codon

________________________________________
8. Not Answered The codons AAA, CCC, GGG, and UUU specify the amino acids lysine, proline, glycine, and phenylalanine, respectively. Which of the following DNA sequences would specify the peptide pro-gly-lys-phe if present in the template strand? (Concept 17.1 )
The Correct Answer: 3'-GGGCCCTTTAAA-5'

________________________________________
9. Not Answered The codons AAA, CCC, GGG, and UUU specify the amino acids lysine, proline, glycine, and phenylalanine, respectively. What peptide sequence would be encoded by the sequence 5'-CCCAAATTTGGG-3', if present in the coding strand of the DNA? (Concept 17.1 )
The Correct Answer: pro-lys-phe-gly

________________________________________
10. Not Answered How many nucleotides are needed to code for a protein with 450 amino acids? (Concept 17.1 )
The Correct Answer: at least 1,350

________________________________________
11. Not Answered In many cases, more than one codon codes for the same amino acid. Because of this, we say that the code is _____. (Concept 17.1 )
The Correct Answer: redundant

________________________________________
12. Not Answered At one point as a cell carried out its day-to-day activities, the nucleotides GAT were paired with the nucleotides CUA. This pairing occurred _____. (Concept 17.2 )
The Correct Answer: during transcription

________________________________________
13. Not Answered Which one of the following catalyzes the linkage between ribonucleotides to form RNA during gene expression? (Concept 17.2 )
The Correct Answer: RNA polymerase

________________________________________
14. Not Answered In eukaryotic cells, a terminator in mRNA synthesis is _____. (Concept 17.2 )
The Correct Answer: a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that signals the RNA polymerase to stop

________________________________________
15. Not Answered In a eukaryotic cell, transcription takes place _____. (Concept 17.2 )
The Correct Answer: in the nucleus

________________________________________
16. Not Answered One strand of a DNA molecule has the following sequence: 3'-AGTACAAACTATCCACCGTC-5'. In order for transcription to occur in that strand, there would have to be a specific recognition sequence, called a(n) _____, to the left of the DNA sequence indicated. (Concept 17.2 )
The Correct Answer: promoter

________________________________________
17. Not Answered During the transcription of a given portion of a DNA molecule _____. (Concept 17.2 )
The Correct Answer: mRNA is synthesized on only one of the chains

________________________________________
18. Not Answered In transcription, _____. (Concept 17.2 )
The Correct Answer: all of the above

________________________________________
19. Not Answered In eukaryotes, which of the following mechanisms of gene regulation operates after transcription, but before translation of mRNA into protein? (Concept 17.3 )
The Correct Answer: RNA splicing and editing

________________________________________
20. Not Answered Usually, in eukaryotic genes _____. (Concept 17.3 )
The Correct Answer: exons are transcribed, but the RNA transcribed from introns does not leave the nucleus

________________________________________
21. Not Answered Which one of the following statements correctly describes mRNA processing? (Concept 17.3 )
The Correct Answer: Introns are cut out of the primary transcript, and the resulting exons are spliced together.

________________________________________
22. Not Answered The structures called snRNPs are _____. (Concept 17.3 )
The Correct Answer: part of a spliceosome

________________________________________
23. Not Answered Nuclei of eukaryotic cells contain spliceosomes that are made up of _____. (Concept 17.3 )
The Correct Answer: snRNA and protein

________________________________________
24. Not Answered A cell biologist found that two different proteins with largely different structures were translated from two different mRNAs. These mRNAs, however, were transcribed from the same template within the cell nucleus. Which mechanism below could best account for this? (Concept 17.3 )
The Correct Answer: Exons from the same gene could be spliced in different ways to make different mRNAs.

________________________________________
25. Not Answered The function of tRNA during protein synthesis is to _____. (Concept 17.4 )
The Correct Answer: deliver amino acids to their proper site during protein synthesis

________________________________________
26. Not Answered Which of the following summaries of protein synthesis is correct? (Concept 17.4 )
The Correct Answer: Messenger RNA is made on a DNA template, and then amino-acid-bearing transfer RNAs bind to it through codon-anticodon pairing.

________________________________________
27. Not Answered The bonds that hold tRNA molecules in the correct three-dimensional shape are _____. (Concept 17.4 )
The Correct Answer: hydrogen bonds

________________________________________
28. Not Answered The translation process in eukaryotes requires all of the following, except _____. (Concept 17.4 )
The Correct Answer: RNA polymerase

________________________________________
29. Not Answered During translation in a eukaryotic cell _____. (Concept 17.4 )
The Correct Answer: polypeptides are synthesized at ribosomes, according to instructions carried by mRNA

________________________________________
30. Not Answered The P site of a ribosome does which one of the following? (Concept 17.4 )
The Correct Answer: It holds the growing polypeptide chain.

________________________________________
31. Not Answered The first amino acid inserted into a new polypeptide chain in eukaryotic cells is always _____. (Concept 17.4 )
The Correct Answer: methionine

________________________________________
32. Not Answered A sequence of pictures of polypeptide synthesis shows a ribosome holding two transfer RNAs. One tRNA has a polypeptide chain attached to it; the other tRNA has a single amino acid attached to it. What does the next picture show? (Concept 17.4 )
The Correct Answer: The polypeptide chain is transferred to the single amino acid.

________________________________________
33. Not Answered During translation, amino acid chain elongation occurs until _____. (Concept 17.4 )
The Correct Answer: the ribosome encounters a "stop" codon

________________________________________
34. Not Answered Polysomes may be defined as _____. (Concept 17.4 )
The Correct Answer: groups of ribosomes

________________________________________
35. Not Answered Cells are able to distinguish proteins destined for secretion or for segregation to specific intracellular compartments from those that will remain in the cytoplasm because _____. (Concept 17.4 )
The Correct Answer: some proteins, as they begin to be synthesized, contain a signal region that causes the ribosome with its growing polypeptide to attach to the ER and translocate the polypeptide into the lumen (space) of the ER

________________________________________
36. Not Answered What is the proper order of the following events in the expression of a eukaryotic gene?

1. translation

2. RNA processing

3. transcription

4. modification of protein

(Concept 17.4 )
The Correct Answer: 3, 2, 1, 4

________________________________________
37. Not Answered What is a key difference in gene expression between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells? (Concept 17.6 )
The Correct Answer: In prokaryotic cells, the mRNA transcript is immediately available as mRNA without processing.

________________________________________
38. Not Answered A geneticist found that a particular mutation had no effect on the polypeptide encoded by the gene. This mutation probably involved _____. (Concept 17.7 )
The Correct Answer: a silent mutation

________________________________________
39. Not Answered Which one of the following types of mutation is least likely to affect the function of the protein corresponding to the gene in which the mutation occurs? (Concept 17.7 )
The Correct Answer: base-pair substitution

________________________________________
40. Not Answered A base-pair substitution mutation in a germ cell line is likely to have no effect on phenotype if the substitution _____. (Concept 17.7 )
The Correct Answer: occurs in an intron

________________________________________
41. Not Answered A virus infects a cell and randomly inserts many short segments of DNA containing a stop codon throughout the organism's chromosomes. This will probably cause _____. (Concept 17.7 )
The Correct Answer: manufactured proteins to be short and defective

________________________________________
42. Not Answered A point mutation in which a single base pair is inserted or deleted from DNA is called a(n) _____. (Concept 17.7 )
The Correct Answer: frame-shift mutation

________________________________________
43. Not Answered Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is damaging to cells because it _____. (Concept 17.7 )
The Correct Answer: causes mutations in the DNA



موفقات جميعا

على كثر مانزلتها ماقد فتحتها هع

يارب سهل علينا ويوفقنا ويمدينا الوقت ونفتحها

دعواااتكم

lover dunk
26th May 2009, 05:32 PM
بنات فيه اشياء ماني عارفتها مثل
exergonic
endergonic
reactants
entropy
ياليت اللي يعرفها يقول لي بلييييزas076

a lady
26th May 2009, 05:51 PM
بنات متى وقت الامتحان ؟؟
مجموعه 15و16 وين قاعتنا

*رفيف*
26th May 2009, 06:03 PM
ايوالله متى الامتحان الوقت مفههههههههههههيه


ماادري وين الله حااااااااااطني
المهم متى ؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟؟ ؟؟؟

طموحي الجنون
26th May 2009, 06:05 PM
بنات فيه اشياء ماني عارفتها مثل
exergonic
endergonic
reactants
ياليت اللي يعرفها يقول لي بلييييزas076

ع كلام برومي

exergonic

معناها الheat gives out with product

والثانية مدري من وين جبتيها

endergonic

بس اتوقع العكس

اظن معناهم بالعربي

تفاعلات طاردة وماصة للحرارة

الايكسو طاردة

الايندو ماصة

>كذا فهمتها عاد مدري

بالتوفيق

=)

D.S.A
26th May 2009, 06:15 PM
exergonica020
accompanied by the release of energy
The opposite of endergonic


from 9 to 10 :6:

مس فوووشيا
26th May 2009, 08:12 PM
in triplet code three consecutive bases specify an amino acid

ياليت وحده تشرحها عجزت افهمها غ1

moony139
26th May 2009, 08:44 PM
الكود بيكون عبارة عن 3 نيوكليوتايد فبنسميه الtriplet code
كل 3 basesمتتابعين بيكونوا بيخصوا امينو اسيد معين
يعني لما يشوف مثلا AUU
دول 3 bases متتابعين
يروح يجيب الامينو اسد المحدد اللي هو مثلا phenylalanine

يا رب تكوني فهمتي
وأي سؤال انا جاهزة
بالتوفيق

D.S.A
26th May 2009, 08:46 PM
ماوصلت لذا الجزء
بس كترجمه للي كاتبته
في الشفره الثلاثيه ثلاث قاعدات متتاليه تحدد الامينو اسيد


بنات وشوو احسن شابتر a020 لاني للحين اتهاوش مع ٩ :what

مس فوووشيا
26th May 2009, 09:14 PM
مونني شكرا ياقلبو الله يجزاك خير

طيب الحين الاضافه تتم عند 3 الى 5
ويقرا من وين لانو مكتوب
geanes are read 3>5 creating5 >3

معليش غثيثه

moony139
26th May 2009, 09:43 PM
الجين هيتقرأ من تجاه 3" الي 5" وبالتالي ال RNA اللي هيتكون هيكون المكمل ليه فهيكون اتجاهه 5" الي 3"
بالتوفيق

ضحكة انكسار
26th May 2009, 10:17 PM
بنااااااات بلييزززز محتاجه السلايدات شابتر 8 و9 و16 و 17 ابي تكون في جهازي

. × Tooth Fairy × .
26th May 2009, 10:48 PM
بنااااااات بلييزززز محتاجه السلايدات شابتر 8 و9 و16 و 17 ابي تكون في جهازي


.
.
8


http://up3.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/5/26/12/qdenuxv7y.pdf/jpg (http://up3.m5zn.com/download-2009-5-26-12-qdenuxv7y.pdf)


.
.
9


http://up3.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/5/26/12/1hka01nog.pdf/jpg (http://[url]http//up3.m5zn.com/download-2009-5-26-12-1hka01nog.pdf)[ (http://[url]http//up3.m5zn.com/download-2009-5-26-12-1hka01nog.pdf)/UR (http://[url]http//up3.m5zn.com/download-2009-5-26-12-1hka01nog.pdf)L (http://[url]http//up3.m5zn.com/download-2009-5-26-12-1hka01nog.pdf)]


.
.
5.4 - 16
http://up3.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/5/26/12/2a6glswvp.pdf/jpg (http://[url]http//up3.m5zn.com/download-2009-5-26-12-2a6glswvp.pdf)[ (http://[url]http//up3.m5zn.com/download-2009-5-26-12-2a6glswvp.pdf)/U (http://[url]http//up3.m5zn.com/download-2009-5-26-12-2a6glswvp.pdf)RL (http://[url]http//up3.m5zn.com/download-2009-5-26-12-2a6glswvp.pdf)]


.
.
17


http://up3.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/5/26/12/0n1oin8m5.pdf/jpg (http://[url]http//up3.m5zn.com/download-2009-5-26-12-0n1oin8m5.pdf)[ (http://[url]http//up3.m5zn.com/download-2009-5-26-12-0n1oin8m5.pdf)/U (http://[url]http//up3.m5zn.com/download-2009-5-26-12-0n1oin8m5.pdf)RL (http://[url]http//up3.m5zn.com/download-2009-5-26-12-0n1oin8m5.pdf)]


.
.
:ورده:

. Alaa .
26th May 2009, 10:52 PM
Hi gifls
بسألكم ؟

الحين الأسئلة اللي بالملف ،،،
كلها معنا ؟


ولا في أشـياء ،، مش متضمنها المنهج المقرر ؟!

. × Tooth Fairy × .
26th May 2009, 11:31 PM
8


http://file14.9q9q.net/Download/68974516/-Chap-9-Cellular-Respiration.pdf.html
.
.


9


http://file14.9q9q.net/Download/16253257/5-Chap-8-Metabolism.pdf.html
.
.


5-16


http://file14.9q9q.net/Download/25514645/7-Chap-5-16-DNA-Replication.pdf.html
.
.


17
http://file14.9q9q.net/Download/21591746/Chap-17-From-gene-to-protein.pdf.html
.
.
ياا رب تفتح معاك
عب1

ضحكة انكسار
26th May 2009, 11:49 PM
^^

شابتر 8 و16 فتح معي
الباقي روابط لصور حفل تخرج ولصور لعضوية بنيه ( فيس منقلب راسه )<< ادري دبلت كبدك


مشكورة والله مقدرة اللي تسوينها اذا تقدرين تعدلينها والا ماقصرتي ( فيس مستحي )

مس فوووشيا
27th May 2009, 01:37 AM
السلام عليكم بنات
ياليت اي وحده عندها ترجمه لاي شابتر تحطه هنا
او عندها شرح
فيه ناس محتاجه
ولا تنسون الاجرِ

Dr.LaMoOo
27th May 2009, 07:00 AM
طموحي الجنون

شكرا لك ع تعاونك معانا وكلمه شكرا ماتكفي

واقل مانقدمه لك دعوه بظهر الغيب

:)

بس عذرا ردود الشكر محذوفه

(f)

Fun 123
27th May 2009, 10:15 AM
اهلين

بناات كيفكم

لووو سمحتوو عندي طلب

ممكن اذا وحده متأكده من حلها لأسئله الميد الثااني الي في السلايدات

تحط الحل هناا

بليييييييييز

والله يوفقكم

الدكتوره هند
27th May 2009, 02:11 PM
بناات هاذا رابط في اليوتيوب يشرح التنفس الخلوي مررره حلو واذا خلص روحوا للمقطع الي بعده..
دعواتكم لي وللي ارسلته لي..
YouTube - Professor Fink explains CELLULAR RESPIRATION (Part 1); ATP, NAD (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WxQeKBHAdn8&feature=related)
بالتوفيق ياحلوات..

حركات
27th May 2009, 03:43 PM
هذا بعد يابنات فيه اشياء حلوه وراح تفهمين على طول واذا خلص روحوا للي بعده
فيه اشياء كثيره عن اللي داخله معنا في الإختبار
YouTube - Cellular Respiration (Electron Transport Chain) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xbJ0nbzt5Kw)
انا عن نفسي ما فهمت الا منها ,,,,موفقين....

,, blank ..
27th May 2009, 04:25 PM
بنات بسألكم
الاختبار الى العنوان what is a gene ؟

صح !!


وسؤال ثاني :
شرح ومعادلات الـ pre - Krebs cycle معانا ولا لأ !!

جاوبوني بليز قلب2

Fun 123
27th May 2009, 04:33 PM
اهلين

بناات كيفكم

لووو سمحتوو عندي طلب

ممكن اذا وحده متأكده من حلها لأسئله الميد الثااني الي في السلايدات او في اخر الملزمه

تحط الحل هناا

بليييييييييز

والله يوفقكم

بنااااات بلييز

:ل6:

kh_7
27th May 2009, 04:58 PM
بنات بسألكم
الاختبار الى العنوان what is a gene ؟

صح !!


وسؤال ثاني :
شرح ومعادلات الـ pre - Krebs cycle معانا ولا لأ !!

جاوبوني بليز

السؤال الاول , ايوه صح a020

الثآني , مادري جش2

overdOse
27th May 2009, 05:37 PM
بنات متى وقت الامتحان ؟؟
مجموعه 15و16 وين قاعتنا

مافيه جوواب as076:6:

حركات
27th May 2009, 06:03 PM
نفس السؤال متى وقت الإختبار ؟؟
وكم رقم قاعة مجموعة 11و12؟؟بات1بات1بات1

M O N A
27th May 2009, 06:06 PM
مافيه جوواب as076:6:


^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
نفس السؤالين a020

متى الاختبار ؟؟
و مجموعة 15 و 16 وين مكاننا ؟...؟؟انتي معايا يختي مين انتي
المهم القاعة مولازم نعرفها بكرة نشوف مكان مايروحوا البنات اللي معنا نروح


بس الساعة كم الاختبار (88)

D.foOofo·#·$19~·$28»
27th May 2009, 06:23 PM
هذا حل أسئلة المد الثاني حلتها لي برومي بس من الاختيارات ما حليت معها الصح والخطأ كنت مستعجلة :لااا:و نسيتها:6:

السؤال الاول
الاجابة A
السؤال الثاني والثالث مو معنا

السؤال الرابع
الاجابة C

السؤال الخامس
الاجابة C

السؤال السادس مو معنا

السؤال السابع
الاجابة B
السؤال الثامن
الاجابة B
السؤال التاسع مو معنا
السؤال العاشر:
الاجابة C
السؤال الحادى عشر:
الاجابة b
السؤال الثاني عشر :
الاجابةB
السؤال 13 مو معنا
السؤال 14
الاجابةA
السؤال 15 مو معنا


بالتوفيق بنات ودعواتكم لي ربي يوفقني وانجح بالايلتس لو2لو2لو2

D.foOofo·#·$19~·$28»
27th May 2009, 06:25 PM
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
نفس السؤالين a020

متى الاختبار ؟؟
و مجموعة 15 و 16 وين مكاننا ؟...؟؟انتي معايا يختي مين انتي
المهم القاعة مولازم نعرفها بكرة نشوف مكان مايروحوا البنات اللي معنا نروح


بس الساعة كم الاختبار (88)

الاختبار من 9 الى 10 يا منىض4

M O N A
27th May 2009, 06:33 PM
الاختبار من 9 الى 10 يا منىض4


بسم الله يماما خوفتيني
كيف عرفتيني يابت انتي مين يابت

طيب باي مكان ل3

و شكرن :ورده: يلي مااعرفك و تعرفيني

مس فوووشيا
27th May 2009, 06:56 PM
بنات عجزت افهم شابتر 9
ساعدوني اهء اهء

D.foOofo·#·$19~·$28»
27th May 2009, 07:15 PM
بسم الله يماما خوفتيني
كيف عرفتيني يابت انتي مين يابت

طيب باي مكان ل3

و شكرن :ورده: يلي مااعرفك و تعرفيني

:مر2::مر2::مر2::مر2::مر2::مر2: اذا شفتك قلتلك من انا:مر2:

مااعرف وين بس اتوقع بنفس قاعة المد الأول بالسلالم المعلقة ههههههههه
عشان يجيك رعب وتحلين كويس في الامتحان ههههههه

دعواتك الله يوفقنا وناخذ الفل ماركdb2db2بات1ف5

Fun 123
27th May 2009, 07:23 PM
بنااات الاختبار حجينا رسمه

طيب ايش الرسمات الي اركز عليها

kh_7
27th May 2009, 07:29 PM
بنات عجزت افهم شابتر 9
ساعدوني اهء اهء

^
نفس الحـآله تقريباً ,
بس شوفي المقطع الي حاطته الدكتوره هند بالصفحه الي قبل قلب2

مره مره جميل
(وين العيسى عن هـ الشرح :oh:)

وانصحك بعد , تخلصين التشابترين الاخيرين بعدين ترجعين لهالشي عشان تمخمخين عليه , لأنه يبي له وقت !

يـآرب يسره لنا , يآكريم (F)

طموحي الجنون
27th May 2009, 07:30 PM
هذا حل أسئلة المد الثاني حلتها لي برومي بس من الاختيارات ما حليت معها الصح والخطأ كنت مستعجلة :لااا:و نسيتها:6:

السؤال الاول
الاجابة A
السؤال الثاني والثالث مو معنا

السؤال الرابع
الاجابة C

السؤال الخامس
الاجابة C

السؤال السادس مو معنا

السؤال السابع
الاجابة B
السؤال الثامن
الاجابة B
السؤال التاسع مو معنا
السؤال العاشر:
الاجابة C
السؤال الحادى عشر:
الاجابة b
السؤال الثاني عشر :
الاجابةB
السؤال 13 مو معنا
السؤال 14
الاجابةA
السؤال 15 مو معنا


بالتوفيق بنات ودعواتكم لي ربي يوفقني وانجح بالايلتس لو2لو2لو2


ربي يسعدك ويوفقك

طيب هذي حلولي لاسئلة صح وخطأ

اذا اصبت فمن الله واذا اخطيت فمن الشيطان

1- مومعنا
2- صح
3-مومعنا
4-خطا لان الجلاكوليزز تحدث في السيتوبلازم والكريب سايكل في الميتكوندريا
5- احسها مو معنا
6-صح
7-صح
8-خطأ >مب متاكدة منها
9-صح
10-الكودن حيكون agg
11- خطأ 3 سيتس
12-صح
13-صح
14 خطا-مو الكحول فريمنيتشن لاكتير فيرمنيشن
15-خطأ 38 اي تي بي
موفقات ودعوااتكم

:ورده:

مس فوووشيا
27th May 2009, 07:37 PM
وين اسئلة المد تيرم

Fun 123
27th May 2009, 07:37 PM
مرررره شكرا طموحي الجنون

الله يجزاك خير

بس ممكن توضحيلي اكثر فقره 10 و14

بالتوفيق وفل مااارك يااارب

:ورده:

moony139
27th May 2009, 07:46 PM
ايه اللي مش فاهماه في شابتر 9 يا مس فوشيا

بالتوفيق ليكو كلكوا يا بنات

طموحي الجنون
27th May 2009, 07:50 PM
مرررره شكرا طموحي الجنون

بس ممكن توضحيلي اكثر فقره 10 و14

بالتوفيق وفل مااارك يااارب

:ورده:


ربي يسمع منك واياك يارب

سؤال 10
شوفي برومي قالت لنا مثلا الدي ان اي
يكون atc
الرنا حيكون uag
بعدها تي ار ان اي حيكون auc
الكودون ايش هو؟
هو تبع الار ان اي
يعني استحالة يكون فيه t
هو قايل لك الانتي كودن agc
جبيلي منه الكودون
حيكون ucg
لييش ماحطينا t ؟؟

لان t تبع الدي ان اي بس

>>يااارب يااارب يصير صح علي وما اخربط عالبنتف5

ياليت حد يأكد جوابي؟؟

السؤال 14

فيه نوعين من الفيرمنتيشن
واحد حيكون الكحول
واحد حيكون لاكتيك (حمض اللبن)
فهو قايل لاكتيك اسيد حمض اللبن
في العضلات بسبب فريمنيشن الكحول
طبعا غلط حيكون لاكتيك اسيد فيرمنتيشن

Fun 123
27th May 2009, 08:13 PM
اهاا مرررره شكرا طموحي الجنون

يعني التصحيح UCG

بالتووووفيق قلب2

بناات ايش الرسمات الي اركز عليها ؟؟؟

طموحي الجنون
27th May 2009, 08:32 PM
8

سوري سوري

غلطت بردي الاول

حتكون UCG

ربنا يسهل =)

jojo_xoxoxo2
27th May 2009, 08:35 PM
بنات الرسمة اللي في شابتر 16(آخر صفحة) اللي فيها ملخص ال DNA replication معانا؟؟فيها كثير خطوات ما درسناها

هنـــاء
27th May 2009, 08:41 PM
ياااااااااااااااااااااااا اااارب توفق البنات كلهم باختبار الاحياء

وياااااااااااارب توفق طموحي الجنون خااااصه

يااااارب تنجحنا ونجيب فل مااااااارك بكره
ويااااااااااارب تجيب طموحي الجنون خاصه باختبار الاحياء فل مارك



شكراااااا طموحي الجنون على اساله الي نزلتيها .. :)

طموحي الجنون
27th May 2009, 08:57 PM
اذا حملتوا اسئلة السي دي

في بعض الاسئلة تجيك رسمة ويقولك

ايش هالمرحلة

>ع فكرة الرسمات اللي جابوها الميد الاول

اتوقع كانت من سي دي كتاب

مثلا يمكن يجيبون والعلم عندالله رايبسوم

ويقولون وين mRNA او شئ زي كذا

أو يجيبون رسمة التنفس الكبيرة ويقولون وين الجلايكوليزز

أو يجيبون لك الريبليكشن للDNA ويقولك وين DNAبوليمرايز

او ترانزليشن ترانسكربيشن

يعني شئ زي كذا

ربي يسهل ويوفقناااا جميعاااااا

طموحي الجنون
27th May 2009, 09:03 PM
وين اسئلة المد تيرم

تلقينها ب سي دي المحاضرات

ربي اشرح لي صدري ويسرلي امري:ورده:

kh_7
27th May 2009, 09:35 PM
ممكن احد يشرح لي سـآلفة الـ ( 3 direction ) و ( 5 direction )

db8

ن2

M!shoo ~
27th May 2009, 09:45 PM
بنات تكفون ... ايش جواب فقرة 6 الإختياري بـ الإختبار الموجود بالسيدي

باقي لي تشابتر كامل ما فتحته
الله يستر لو2

Fun 123
27th May 2009, 09:50 PM
^^^
في السي دي حق الكتاب ولا السلايدات

M!shoo ~
27th May 2009, 09:59 PM
^ ^ ^
السلايدات ...!

Bitoo
27th May 2009, 10:05 PM
^
والله مآعرف مابعد حليتهم

../
اللي تسأل عن الدايركشن

عندي ملآحظه ربي فاتح على قلبي في يوم من الايام وكتبتها مع الدكتورهـ
""اذا كانت النهايه 3 فأنه يستطيل بهذآ الاتجاهـ ----} ومافي مشكله نظيف
أما إذا النهايه تستطيل {----- فيه مشكله ولا نقدر نظيف ""
هذي هي الملآحظه نصآ زي ماكتبتهآ..
المهم من شرحي لنفسي فأن كانه صح الحمدلله وغن كانه غلط ياليت احد يصحح لنآ..

أنو لآزم يبدأ تكوين الـDNA الجديد من الـنهايه 3 يعني لازم تكون القراءهـ من 3 إلى خمسه ويكون تكوين الـDNA الجديد جاي من النهايه 3 حقت الأصلي ونازل على تحت

فيكون في الـleader يبدأ طبيعي يمسك النهايه 3 ويكون عليهآ
أما الـlagging بمآ ان الليدر اخذ النهايه 3 فماراح يبقى له الا النهايه 5 وراح يضطر يآخذهآ
فيبدآ يكون أجزاء Okazaki من عند الـ5 وطالع بس يربطهم ببعض من الـ2 الى 1 ومن 3الى 2
بحيث القراءهـ و الاتجاهـ تصير بعد مايكتمل من الـ3 نازله لتحت

يعني المتردد يكون أول جزء من okazaki بعد مايكونه يتركه بعدين يروح لفوق بأتجاه النهايه 3
ويكون الجزء 2 وبعدين يرقآ فوق ويكون الجزء 3 ويرقآ بعد ويكون 4 وكذآ
بعدين لمآ يكونهم ويوصل النهايه 3 يجي الـligase اللي يقعد يربط الأجزاء مع بعض
فيبدأ من أخر جزيء اللي هو فرضآ 10 ويربطه بـ9 ويأخذ9 ويربطه بـ8 وكذآ ليما يوصل لـ1 اللي هو أول واحد صنعه

وبكذآ تكون قراءته من 3 نازل لتحت على 5 لآننآ ربطناهم من 10 الى 1 ..


يآرب تكوني فهمتي ترآني فاشله بالشرح ..
لو مافهمتي قولي لي أعيد لك ياهـ..

بليز بنات أذأ عندي شيء غلط صححولنآ ياهـ..

+
بنآت مافي شرح لدروس الترانز كريبشين والترانزليشن تبع الشابتر الاخير..!

أحس راسي محيوس مرهـ مادري كيف الملزمه مرهـ احس مو مرتبه

بليز اللي تلقى شرح كويس الترانزليشن والترانزكريبشن تنزله

واذا لقيت بنزله ..


موفقين

Fun 123
27th May 2009, 10:10 PM
بنات تكفون ... ايش جواب فقرة 6 الإختياري بـ الإختبار الموجود بالسيدي

باقي لي تشابتر كامل ما فتحته
الله يستر لو2

فقره 6 مو معنا

بالتوفيق

طموحي الجنون
27th May 2009, 10:21 PM
بنات تكفون ... ايش جواب فقرة 6 الإختياري بـ الإختبار الموجود بالسيدي

باقي لي تشابتر كامل ما فتحته
الله يستر لو2

تقصدي حق دلتا G

جوابه c

يااااااارب سهل

مرررة خااايفةلو2

طموحي الجنون
27th May 2009, 10:25 PM
بنات اللي عندهم سي دي الكتاب

لما تجي تحطوا اكتفيتيس كويز

تلقوا جنب السؤال مكتوب

زي كذا (Activity: Overview of Protein Synthesis)

لما تضغطوا عليه حيطلعلك فيديو يشرحه لك

مرررة حلووو

شابتر 17 :6:

Fun 123
27th May 2009, 10:40 PM
بناااات هذا تلخيص استاذه برومي

لشاابتر 9
http://www.cksu.com/vb/uploaded/42303/1243453016.jpg

http://www.cksu.com/vb/uploaded/42303/1243453083.jpg

http://www.cksu.com/vb/uploaded/42303/1243453114.jpg

http://www.cksu.com/vb/uploaded/42303/1243453144.jpg

هي مو واااضحه لأنها مصوره بالجوال

بس إن شاء الله تفيدكم

ولااتنسوني من دعاااااااااائكم

بالتوفيق

Bitoo
27th May 2009, 11:13 PM
ربي يسعدك ويوفقك

طيب هذي حلولي لاسئلة صح وخطأ

اذا اصبت فمن الله واذا اخطيت فمن الشيطان

1- مومعنا
2- صح
3-مومعنا
4-خطا لان الجلاكوليزز تحدث في السيتوبلازم والكريب سايكل في الميتكوندريا
5- احسها مو معنا
6-صح
7-صح
وين حصلتي الجواب.؟

8-خطأ >مب متاكدة منها
من وين أخذتي الجواب .! وين موجود الـaminoactyl-tRNA..
مآتذكر درسته ابدآ ..

9-صح

بعد من وين حصلتي الجواب.! أحس مالقيته..لو2

10-الكودن حيكون agg

ليه الكودون بيصير AGG.!! مو الـG = C طيب والـA = T

11- خطأ 3 سيتس
12-صح
13-صح
14 خطا-مو الكحول فريمنيتشن لاكتير فيرمنيشن
هنآ ايش الأكتير فيرمنيشن.!
يعني قصدك الاكتيك اسيد فيرمنيشن..!!

15-خطأ 38 اي تي بي


موفقات ودعوااتكم

:ورده:


+بنآت ممكن اللي يعرف حل الـQ3 الموجود بأسئله الملزمه اللي تبع الـدفينيشين
ينزله ..

رآسي يعورني من ذآ الاحيآ

M!shoo ~
27th May 2009, 11:46 PM
^ ^ ^
حتى أنا:6: ... ويقاله كان أحلى مادة عندي !

فقرة 7
تلقين جوابها بـ آخر تشابتر 16 ،، بالضبط بالصفحة قبل الأخيرة to summarize
the leading strand is copied continuously into the fork from a single primer

فقرة 8
حتى أنا ما مرّت علي لين الحين << باقي لي 10 صفحات لو2

فقرة 9
خطأ ...!
لأنه فوق الـ figure أبو فقاقيع << عليّ شرح ض1
مكتوب :
eukaryotic chromosome may have 100 or even 1000 of riplication origions

فقرة 10
أتوقع الجواب UCG

-------------------------------------------

التعاريف أحاول أحلها وبنزلها إذا عرفت خط1

D.foOofo·#·$19~·$28»
27th May 2009, 11:58 PM
ربي يسعدك ويوفقك

طيب هذي حلولي لاسئلة صح وخطأ

اذا اصبت فمن الله واذا اخطيت فمن الشيطان

1- مومعنا
2- صح
3-مومعنا
4-خطا لان الجلاكوليزز تحدث في السيتوبلازم والكريب سايكل في الميتكوندريا
5- احسها مو معنا
6-صح
7-صح
8-خطأ >مب متاكدة منها
9-صح
10-الكودن حيكون agg
11- خطأ 3 سيتس
12-صح
13-صح
14 خطا-مو الكحول فريمنيتشن لاكتير فيرمنيشن
15-خطأ 38 اي تي بي
موفقات ودعوااتكم

:ورده:

طموحي الجنون هذا الحل مو مني اليوم انا رد لدكتورة برومي وحلته لي يعني اي ثنكجش2 اكيد صحخط1جش2

Bitoo
28th May 2009, 12:00 AM
^

شكرآ مرهـ الله يوفقك ويسهل عليك

بس فقرهـ 10 مايصلح تجي U لآن اليو بس في الكمبلمنتري يعني بس بالانتيكودون
على حسب فهمي ..

يعني احسهآ المفروض تطلع TCG

M!shoo ~
28th May 2009, 12:01 AM
DNA ligase
glycolysis
------- المد الأول
cofactors
أتوقع cytochromes
أتوقع binding site
------- المد الأول
lagging strand
آخر ثنين ما عرفتهم :6:


الله يستر ...!
باقي 9 ساعات بالضبط على الإختبار as076

Dr.italya10
28th May 2009, 12:11 AM
اهلا بنات الاسئله انا حالته مع مدرسه ومتاكده منه ان اشاء الله


نفس اجوبة طموحي الجنون

ماعدا 9 خطاء عندها اكثر من موقع البكتيريا هي الي عندها موقع واحد
و10 صح

اما الاختيارات
4-C
5-c
10-c
...

وتعاريف
ا-DNA ligase
2-glcolysis
3-ligging srrand
10-atp
5-ETC
9-polyribosomes
4-cofactor

ولالالاتنسوني من دعوانكم...:ورده:قلب2


حبيت اسالكم بانسبه لانتاج ماسنجر ار ان اي فيه ترانسيليت ار ان اي ينقل الاحماض النوويه
وشلون في كتابنا قال هو يحمل في طرف منه الحمض الاميني وطرف الاخر antcodn تبع الحمض طيب كل ترانسيليت ار ان اي معه antcodn وعلى اسايه ياخذ الحمض ولا شلون يعمل ؟؟؟

Lαmα
28th May 2009, 04:31 AM
لحسة مخ :$

موفقين كلكم يارب :$

طموحي الجنون
28th May 2009, 04:56 AM
اقول دروخ بي راسي

:6:

استودعك الله ماحفظت ومافهمت

اللهم اعده الي وقت حاجتي

ياااااااارب سهل علينا جميعا ووفقناا

يارب كلنا فل ماارك

يارب نزل علينا الاجابات ودلنا عليها

Bitoo
28th May 2009, 05:58 AM
5. Not Answered Which one of the following is not associated with RNA? (Concept 17.1 )
The Correct Answer: thymine



بنات ايش قصدهم هنآ..!!

يعني الـRNA مايجي معاهـ T ابدآ..!

طموحي الجنون
28th May 2009, 06:43 AM
بنات ايش قصدهم هنآ..!!

يعني الـRNA مايجي معاهـ T ابدآ..!

يس شور

لما تعملي ريبليكشن للدي ان اي

تحطي t

مثلا كان ACG
تعمليله ريبليكشن يعني يطلع دي ان اي كمان

حيكون TGC

بس لو نعمله ترانسكربيشن

يعني نسخ ونخليه ار ان اي

A حترتبط مع U مو مع T

يعني لو كان دي ان اي

ACG

حيكون الار ان اي

UGC

هذا والله أعلم

باقي ساعتينas076

Asmomitta
28th May 2009, 06:59 AM
بنات فيه سؤال من أسئلة السي دي حق 16 او 17 جايب رسمة الفايروس وحاط الجواب bacterium ، خطأ عليه. صح؟ :6:

S A N D Y
28th May 2009, 07:03 AM
صبايا كيف الهمة ض2

موفقين إن شاء الله غ6

سؤال chapter 9 وش يبي بالضبط أو بمعنى اصح وش يحس فيه لحس مخي لحس اخرتها رميت الملزمة وزعلت منه حس1

مس فوووشيا
28th May 2009, 07:32 AM
بنات احد يعرف حل الرسمه الي بالسئله الميد تيرم
وايش الرسمات الي ترشحونها <<<<يعني تتوقعون تجي

Dr.Tofi san
28th May 2009, 10:18 AM
الحمد لله وصلت قبلكم من الإمتحان <<<< ههههههههههههههههههههههههه


هاه يا حلوين بشروا كيف كان الإكزام ؟؟؟


أنا عن نفسي أقول الحمد لله رب العالمين ل3

Fun 123
28th May 2009, 10:44 AM
والله الحمد لله

افتكينا

S A N D Y
28th May 2009, 11:02 AM
مز1

طموحي الجنون
28th May 2009, 11:09 AM
مع احترامي الشديد

الامتحان كان غبي

غبي غبي ..etc

بسأل سؤال التحطمنيشن هذي متى بتخلص

ربي يعوضنا خير

مانقول غير يااارب الخيرة

ويااارب نعوض بالامتحانات الجاية

والحمدلله دوما وأبدا

موفقات جميعا

بليز بنات موضوعي تبع الجدول النهائي

شيكوا على اخر رد لي فيه

>>حأكتبه بعد شويات

الدكتوره هند
28th May 2009, 11:17 AM
شفت الورقه انفجعت ماعرفت احل اغلب الاساله ونسيت كل الي ذاكرته بس الحمد لله توكلت على ربي واخترت الاختيارات الي انا حاسه انها صح ..ولمن طلعت اتاكدت من اجوبتي وطلع اغلبها صح علي..
الحمد الله يارب الحمد الله..بس قهر مركزين على شابتر 9 و17 اكثر شي..الله يعدي الفاينل على خير..

مس فوووشيا
28th May 2009, 12:19 PM
صار تبلد احساس
اهم شينفتك وبس
الله يعطينا الاجر بس

M!shoo ~
28th May 2009, 12:25 PM
الحمدلله خلصنا من الحين بحلوه و مرّه ض1<< باقي الفاينل :6:!

طيب،،
وش باقي من اختبارات المدتيرم الثاني ؟
الخميس الجاي كيم ،، طيب فيه شي قبله ولا بعده ؟
<< دارية السؤال مكانه غلط .. بس لا تقشعون سؤالي لين يجاوب عليه احد :×

طموحي الجنون
28th May 2009, 12:33 PM
8

اييييييه باقي كثير

لسى المشوار بأوله هع امزح

شوفي حنا باقي لنا 10 ايام بالزبط بالملز

9 ايام منها كلها اختبارت ميد ثاني وفاينل

يوم الخميس الجاي كيم

السبت او الاحد احص

بنفس الاسبوع حيكون فيه فاينل حين عملي

وع فكرة هالاسبوع حيعملون مراجعة للفيران

ع الخميس اللي بعد الجاي ميد 2 فيز

بعدها بيوم ونص السبت فاينل انجلش

وتبدأ الفاينلس

(أحلى شئ فاينل اللاب الربوع الخميس ميد تيرم فيز
السبت فاينل انجلش ام الجدول الراااائع؟؟؟))

>ابدا مب زحمة

يحذف ردي الا جملتين

الحين اللاب حيكون بعد اسبوع

وهالاسبوع حيكون فيه مراجعة

موفقات

Bitoo
28th May 2009, 01:04 PM
^ يب

هذآ الاسبوع مرآجعه والاسبوع الجاي تبدأ الاختبارات

يعني سبت الاحصاء تبدآ فيه الاختبارات
{-- عندي احصاء ومعمل بنفس اليو :6:

احلى البنات..
30th May 2009, 08:22 PM
بنات انا سمعت وقريت من اكثر من مكان ان اسئلة السي دي مره مهمه

وانا ما اشتريت الكتاب ولا عندي السي دي

اللي عندها السي دي يا ليت ترفعلنا الاسئله ... ولها جزيل الشكر مقدما ..


عشان نتجهز للفاينل لاني انا وحده من اللي مسوين حفلات بالحين ..


اللــــه يستر وتعدي على خير ..

Dr.LaMoOo
31st May 2009, 04:23 AM
ليه دايم نشوف الناس أقل مننا ونحقر منهم ؟


اللي تتكلموا عنهم أستاذات درسونا ولهم حق علينا

فأحترامهم واجب

فماله داعي نقلل من قيم انفسنا بأسلوبنا

فلو سمحتوا أحترموا الاستاذات


الموضوع هذا انفتح للاستفسارات واي شي يتعلق بماده الحين

فما كنت اتمنى أن الموضوع ينقلب شات :)

D.foOofo·#·$19~·$28»
31st May 2009, 06:24 PM
مرحبا بنوتات جبت لكم شئ مررررررررة مفيدة للي ما حضروا لاب الاحياء
digestive systemعب1

YouTube - Rat dissection-- digestive system (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A7SrFNIRots)
دوا حيلكم عشان نعوض درجاتنا اللي راحت الخميس في امتحان الاحياء:6:

بالتوفيق ودعواتكم لي انجح بالايلتس غ6

Bitoo
1st June 2009, 12:03 AM
YouTube - labcast's Channel (http://www.youtube.com/user/labcast)

هنآ فيه تشريح الرات كآمل فيه من ضمنهم الـmusculer & skeleton ماتوقع انهم معآنآ

المعيدهـ قال لنا انهم 3 الـnervous - digestive -reproductive
وقالت انو الـكلى والأشياء ضمن الدايجستيف أو انه ضمن الريبرودكتيف نسيت بالضبط :$

المهم إن شاء الله يفيدكم الفيديو .

بعد لقيت هذآ الشيء.. تختاري العنوان اللي بدك ياهـ ويطلع لك صورهـ وكذآ ..

Rat (http://www.cccmkc.edu.hk/~kei-kph/Rat%20dissection/Rat%20dissection%20menu.htm)

هوني كمآن

A&P1- Week 1: Rat Dissection (http://www.jeremyswan.com/anatomy/203/html/01.html)


اختاري الصوره وتكبر فيهآ كمان كذآ صورة ثانيه تختاري اللي تبغيهآ..

هنآ..

Rat Anatomy Review for Biology 120 (http://www.utm.edu/staff/rirwin/public_html/RatAnat.htm)

حآطين انواع الاشياء وبعدين تختاري اللي تبغين بعدين تطللع صورة فيها اسهم تحددي ايش الاشياء
بعدين فيه تحت show the answers لما تخلصي تختاريهم
احس حلو كـrevision


إن شاء الله يفيدون ..

دعوآتكم .., بالتوفيق قلب2

كبسولة
1st June 2009, 09:24 PM
يقولون فيه فيديو للدكتور إقبال مرة حلوة و واضح (أستاذتنا تقوله)
بس دورته مالقيته حتى عند العيال
الي تلقه تحطه هنا الله يعافيها

Bitoo
1st June 2009, 09:30 PM
^

حتى انا دورته مالقيته مع ان المعيدهـ تقول في الهوم بيج بس ماحصلته .!

F 6 0 0
2nd June 2009, 07:55 PM
ياشعب العملي ..

سوري ع التأخير .. بس توني أتذكر إني أنزلهم .. ض2

وصلتني صور اللي حاطينها لنا بـ اللاب ..

تقريبن نفسها نفس الي بـ الكتاب بس حبيت هذي اكثر :71: قلب2

رفعته لكم هنا (http://www.4shared.com/file/109441418/9062639c/Desktop.html) ..

واللي تبي تذاكر بـ ورق واختبارها مو السبت ..

ترا المعيدات جزاهم الله خير نزلو الصور اللي مو واضحه بـ الكوبي سنتر قلب2


ووو بس ض2


موفقين كل ابونا :rose1:

lover dunk
2nd June 2009, 08:13 PM
بنات نزلت درحات حين نظري

*may
4th June 2009, 01:44 PM
مرحبا
بنات ممكن الورقة تبع فصائل الدم الي نزلت في الكوبي سنتر؟؟؟
اذا ما عليكم امر يا ليت وحدة تنزلها

Brilliant Girl
4th June 2009, 04:20 PM
ممكن اعرف الجزء النضري الي بالملزمه معانا ولا لا

alanoud M
4th June 2009, 04:32 PM
بنات بليز اللي تلقى الفيديو تحطه لنا
واللي تقدر تنزل ورقة فصائل الدم يا ليت تحطها

سارا ~
4th June 2009, 04:58 PM
^

تفضلوا ..

اضغطي ع الصورة عشان تصير بـ الحجم الطبيعي =) ,,


http://up3.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/6/4/07/bmwcogvco.jpg/jpg (http://up3.m5zn.com/photo/2009/6/4/07/bmwcogvco.jpg/jpg)


ربنا يوفقنا جميعا قلب2 ,,

=)

Bitoo
4th June 2009, 05:23 PM
مشاهدة الصور (http://up3.m5zn.com/photo/2009/6/4/07/mtbom8zti.jpg/jpg)

مشاهدة الصور (http://up3.m5zn.com/photo/2009/6/4/07/ju0jy5zte.jpg/jpg)

هذآ جدول الدم

Bitoo
4th June 2009, 05:27 PM
Brillant Girl

معيدتنآ قالت احفظوآ الرسمات وبس

حركات
4th June 2009, 05:33 PM
مرحبا بنات
حبيت اقول لكم ترى مو كل البيانات مطالبين فيها وهذي حقت the brain of rat
oleactory lobe
cerebral hemisphere
cerebellum(paraflocculus, flocculus , vermis
ransverse sinus
medulla oblongata
spinal cord
هذي حقت dorsal view امــا venral view OPtic مو متأكده هي معنا ولا لا

B!do
4th June 2009, 08:01 PM
^
^
^
venral view optic
مو معانا
وشكرا للبنات إلي نزلوا مقاطع فيديوا لأني كنت ناويه أدور عليهم
والله يوفقنا جميع

DR. Hano6a
4th June 2009, 08:37 PM
يالبى قلوب الصحيات قلوب قلوب قلوب

الله يسعدكم ويسهل عليكم دنيا واخره يارب

..عالية الهمة ..
4th June 2009, 09:39 PM
مساء الخير يا بنوتات
عندي سؤال وأتمنى الإجابه عليه كيف رح يكون الإمتحان العملي هاذي المرة نفس الأول على ورق وندور ورست ولا كيف بالله اللي عندها خلفيه تقولي والله يوفقها ويجزاها الجنهعب1

smile..~
4th June 2009, 10:11 PM
وصلني ع الايميل

أن شاء الله تستفدون منه قلب2




طالباتي العزيزات

السلام عليكم ورحمة اللة وبركاتة
اود احاطتكم باأنه يوجد عروض تقديمية (Power Point) خاصة بالجزء العملي الثاني لمقرر 145 حين (تشريح الفأر)
على هذه المواقع



Home - جميلة عبيد الشمري (http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/30474/default.aspx) ( أ.جميلة الشمري )



Home - غاده ابراهيم محمد البشر (http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/18848/default.aspx) ( أ.غادة البشر)



او الرابط المباشر للعروض التقديمية



Documents (http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/30474/Documents/Forms/AllItems.aspx)





الرجاء ابلاغ جميع طالبات 145 حين لتعم الفائدة للجميع

مع تمنياتي للجميع بالتوفيق والنجاح
أ.جميلة الشمري


:ورده:

هنـــاء
5th June 2009, 03:52 PM
ايووه حبيبتي الاختبار سؤال بيجيك رسمه واكتبي اسم الرسمه والبيانات


سؤال بيجيك بدرس الدم بيحطون شريحه دم وبيقولونلك قولي الفينوتايب والجينوتايب


سؤال بدرس الصفات بتجيك صوره بيقولولك وشو الفينوتايب والجينوتايب

بالنسبه للمخ بيجيك جاهز وبيحطونلك اسهم وانتي تكتبين الاسم


بالنسبه للتشريح قالت احتمال تشرحون او تنحط اسهم ويمررون البنات ونقول الاسم او يجيك مشرح ويطلبون منك تطلعين شي


)))) بنات استاااااذه بروووومي تكفون الي تقدر تتبرع وتصورلي ملزمتها تكفون تراسلني بالخاص محتاجه ملزمه بنت تكتب نوتات مع برووومي

هذي الماده مسببتلي ازمه مررره الاختبار الاول جبت 6 ذاكرت تشابتر واحد وتشابترين مافهمت ولا كلمه بالسلايدات والاختبار الثاني قرات السلايدات وحفظت اسئله السي دي ورحت لمدرسه خصوصيه وجبت 9 ان قلت تحطمممممت مرررررره شويه انهرت بالاصح...مررررره رااااايحه فيها بالاحياء وحتى بالعملي لاتقولون وش دخلك صحيه وانتي تكرهين الاحياء لهالدرجه بس انا من الاول مو حاطه ببالي طب او اسنان حاطه ببالي صيدله او علوم طبيه لان اغلبها كيمياء .. فالله يجزاها خير الي تقدر تصورلي ملزمتها مكتوبه فيها نوتاااااات برومي والله بدعيلها من قلب لانه مافي حل الا كذا ممكن افلح بالفاينل :( لا والله بس ابي انجح وبس ..

F A T Y
5th June 2009, 04:20 PM
(( بنات استاااااذه بروووومي تكفون الي تقدر تتبرع وتصورلي ملزمتها تكفون تراسلني بالخاص محتاجه ملزمه بنت تكتب نوتات مع برووومي ))

انا ادرس مع برومي وبنسبة لي اول كنت اكتب معها:oh:
لكن بعدين سحبت سيفون عليها من يوم رحت عند مدرسة اسمها أماني
على اني كل مرة انتبة مع برومي وكذه أكتشفت ان فيني غباء مفرط
يوم تشرح لي أماني التشابتر وكذه اكتشفت اشياء كثييييرة ماكنت فاهمتها
مع اني يوم كنت مع برومي حس اني فاهمة ! لكن مدري شسالفة صراحة !


هذي الماده مسببتلي ازمه مررره الاختبار الاول جبت 6 ذاكرت تشابتر واحد وتشابترين مافهمت ولا كلمه بالسلايدات والاختبار الثاني قرات السلايدات وحفظت اسئله السي دي ورحت لمدرسه خصوصيه وجبت 9 ان قلت تحطمممممت مرررررره شويه انهرت بالاصح...مررررره رااااايحه فيها بالاحياء وحتى بالعملي لاتقولون وش دخلك صحيه وانتي تكرهين الاحياء لهالدرجه بس انا من الاول مو حاطه ببالي طب او اسنان حاطه ببالي صيدله او علوم طبيه لان اغلبها كيمياء .. فالله يجزاها خير الي تقدر تصورلي ملزمتها مكتوبه فيها نوتاااااات برومي والله بدعيلها من قلب لانه مافي حل الا كذا ممكن افلح بالفاينل :( لا والله بس ابي انجح وبس ..

نفس الحالة انا الأول 9 و الثاني 8 :واء:
يأست بصراحة ,, والحين مرررة شايلة هم النهائي
وغير كذه انا نفس الشي ودي ادخل صيدلة بس مدري ولله
مع هالدرجات الحلوة شكلة مافي امل (n)

ت1
بناات تعرفون اي كووبي سينتر يبييع ملزمة احيا مترجمة عربي ؟؟
صراحة مو معقولة محد فكر يترجمها ويبيعها والله ليربحون ملايين منى :oh:


وهم بعد درس الصفات وش نذاكر فيه بالضبط ؟

Bitoo
5th June 2009, 05:34 PM
بنات

اللحين مو الـ GROOVE CONTINUOUS WITH POSTER CHOROID PLEXUS

مو مطلوب.! طيب في النموذ اللي بآخر الملزمه مأشرين عليه .!

Bitoo
5th June 2009, 05:46 PM
+

برضوآبنات رسمه الـDIGESTIVE SYSTEM
اللي صفحة 94 معآنآ والا لا..!

ورسمة الـSPINAL NERVES
ص 106 معانا والا لا.!!

لآنو المعيدهـ قالت 3 رسممات من الكوبي سنتر ورسمتين بالملزمه..!

انو رسمتين بالضبط.!

alanoud M
5th June 2009, 09:36 PM
بيتو ايش الرسمات اللي بالكوبي سنتر ؟؟

شكرا لللي نزلوا ورقة الدم جعلكم بالجنة يارب

AsSoOoOoOom
5th June 2009, 09:51 PM
+

برضوآبنات رسمه الـDIGESTIVE SYSTEM
اللي صفحة 94 معآنآ والا لا..!

ورسمة الـSPINAL NERVES
ص 106 معانا والا لا.!!

لآنو المعيدهـ قالت 3 رسممات من الكوبي سنتر ورسمتين بالملزمه..!

انو رسمتين بالضبط.!



هادي الرسمات اللي معانا
ص 91
ص 94
ص 100
ص 101
ص 104 DORSAL RAT
بس هادا اللي حددته المعيده
بنات ازا كنت منقصه شي قولو

Bitoo
5th June 2009, 10:32 PM
بيتو ايش الرسمات اللي بالكوبي سنتر ؟؟

شكرا لللي نزلوا ورقة الدم جعلكم بالجنة يارب

الرسمات ص 91 و100 و101

لآنو الليبلز مو واضحين نزلوهآ المعيدآت بليبلز اوضح الله يعافيهم

لو مو عندك قولي لي اسوي لهآ سكان

هنـــاء
5th June 2009, 10:35 PM
هادي الرسمات اللي معانا
ص 91
ص 94
ص 100
ص 101
ص 104 DORSAL RAT
بس هادا اللي حددته المعيده
بنات ازا كنت منقصه شي قولو

الا اسوووم احنا استاذه ريم قاااالتلنا اربع رسمااااات بس ان شاااء الله بس هم تطمني:ورده:

AsSoOoOoOom
5th June 2009, 10:37 PM
الا اسوووم احنا استاذه ريم قاااالتلنا اربع رسمااااات بس ان شاااء الله بس هم تطمني:ورده:



مشكوره يا قلبي
بس خفت اكون ناسيه شي
واتحمل ذنب هالبنات

alanoud M
5th June 2009, 10:53 PM
والله ما عندي يا ليت تنزلينها
يعطيك العافيه والله يوفقك يارب

Bitoo
5th June 2009, 11:26 PM
والله ما عندي يا ليت تنزلينها
يعطيك العافيه والله يوفقك يارب

اسفة يابعدي

ماقدرت اسوي لهآ سكان الآله مآدري وش فيهآ مو راضيه تنسخ ..!

مرهـ اسفة .. بحاول فيهآ مرهـ بعد

alanoud M
5th June 2009, 11:37 PM
مررررره شكرا حبيبتي خلاص لا تتعبين نفسك الحمدلله درستهم من الملزمه يعطيك العافيه

Fun 123
5th June 2009, 11:54 PM
بناات بليز سؤاال

في حق فصاائل الدم

اييش الوانهم لما نشوفهم

A لونها ازرق صح والباااقيين ايييش

؟؟؟؟

بلييييييييز جاوبوني

بالتووووووووووفيق

..عالية الهمة ..
5th June 2009, 11:54 PM
حبيبتي الغاليه مجروحه فيني الروح مررررررررررررة شكرا يالغاليه جدا افدتيني الله يوفقك وييسر أمرك ياارب وتعوضين في هذا الله يسهل لك ويفتح عليك جزاك الله ألف خير وربي يسر لك وتخشين التخصص اللي في بالك وللكل جزيتن خيرا(دعوة شامله) جد1

..عالية الهمة ..
5th June 2009, 11:56 PM
[SIZE="5"]حبيبتي FUNأعتقد إن الAلونها أزرق والBأصفر والDلونها أبيض إن شاء الله يكون صح علي وأفدتك [عب1/SIZE]

Fun 123
6th June 2009, 12:02 AM
[size="5"]حبيبتي FUNأعتقد إن الAلونها أزرق والBأصفر والDلونها أبيض إن شاء الله يكون صح علي وأفدتك [عب1/SIZE]



مررره شكرااا

وكماان عندي سؤاال

ايش هو RH+ٌ

حركات
6th June 2009, 05:12 PM
بنات اللي اختبروا اليوم وشلون كان الإختبار
شرحتوا فار ؟؟؟

Bitoo
6th June 2009, 05:44 PM
لآ ماشرحنآ..

آصلآ كانوآ قايلين لنآ انو ماراح نشرح لآن شعبتنآ مآخذت التشريح كويس اخذنآهـ مع المحاضرهـ الثاني
فصار ضغط
وقالوآ مآراح تشرحون..

الآختبار كآن سهل جدآ .. حرآم يضيع من يديكم ..

احفظوآ الرسمات زي اساميكم واحفظوآ العنوان تبع الرسمه

أول صفحة فيهآ الرسمه و 8 ليبلز عليهآ
وبعدين الصفات السائدهـ والمتنحيه ..
يقولوآ اكتبي الفينو تايب والجينو تايب..

بعدين سؤال يدور عليك بفار مشرح وحاطين ليبلز على الاشياء تأضر لك عليهآ المعيدهـ
وتطلعهآ لك يعني ..
جآبوآ لنا الـ liver - testis -ileum- trachea

بعدين الدماغ وعليه 2 ليبلز واحد كآن على الـ medulla oblongata والثاني على الـ cerebral hemisphere

وفيه حقت الدم مرهـ مرهـ واضحه .. من دون تحريك ولآ شيء واضحه مرهـ..
كانت تبعنآ B+
ويطلبوآ الفينو والجينو تايب

بس الآختبار مرهـ حلو وسهل

الرسمات كانت لدايجستيف سيستم والفيميل يورينوجنتال سيستم
هذآ اللي شفته
وكل وحدهـ تختلف الليبلز حقاتهآ عن اللي بجنبهآ..


موفقين ..،

دعوآتكم قلب2

Dr.italya10
6th June 2009, 07:04 PM
^^^^
طيب كان وااااضح ليبل الي على عضو الي عليه ؟؟؟!!!:6:

Bitoo
6th June 2009, 07:26 PM
ايه مرهـ واضح..

الاختبار اسهل من السهل..

ادرسي الرسمات + الصور اللي بسلايدات أ.جميله & أ.غاده

والليبل كآن لونه اصفر وعريض وواضح مرهـ..

Dr.italya10
6th June 2009, 07:55 PM
^^^^
مرررره شكراااا الله يووفقك ياارب وين ماااتروحين عب1

الدكتوره هند
7th June 2009, 08:04 PM
هاااي بنات كيفكم..
اتمنى وحده تنزل اساله سي دي الكتاب حق الابواب الي بعد الميد الثاني..
شكراا ..

الدنيا حلوة
8th June 2009, 04:38 PM
[SIZE="5"]مشكوووووووووووووووووورة bitoo ياعسل ان شاء الله فالك a+ امين يارب ]

الأميره النائمه
8th June 2009, 08:24 PM
كبفكم صبايا

بس حبيت اسال

الحين الرسمات 4 رسمات

الهضمي والبولي والتناسلي الذكري والانثوي

والدماغ الجزء الخلفي بس

صح او لا

AsSoOoOoOom
8th June 2009, 08:28 PM
يب يب

بس الرسمات الأربعه اللي قلتي عليهم

الله يوفقكم ترا الإختبار سهل
بس شدو حيلكم

الله يهونها عليكم

ضحكة انكسار
8th June 2009, 11:45 PM
ممكن احد ينزلي شابتر 3 و2 من العروض اللي سوتها استاذه جميله مافتحوا عندي ..

طموحي الجنون
9th June 2009, 04:30 AM
هاي جيرلز

جمعت لكم اسئلة السي دي كتاب

طبعا الميد ثاني قد نزلته قبل

هذا الميد الاول

______ ______ __________ ____________.zip - 1.44MB (http://www.zshare.net/download/61125487e55b6869/)

>هذا الشئ مسويته اايام الميد الاول فالكلام اللي فيه لاحداث قديمة>ذكرياتض4
وهذا للجزئية الاخيرة

______ __________ __________ ____________.zip - 2.12MB (http://www.zshare.net/download/61125401e23a89ca/)

هالشئ ارسلته عالايميل وفيه كلام كثير قلته

بس مايصير احطه بتجمع الحين

اي هوب كل بنت بالصحية يوصلها ايميلي

دعواااتكم صباااياا

امتحاني العملي بكرا

>سؤال يحتاج اشرح فار تخيلوا من الربوع اللي فات

حاطه فار بالفيريزر ولاشرحته لين الحينف5

موفقات جميعا

طموحي الجنون

joory
9th June 2009, 07:08 AM
طموحي الجنون :
ما اتوقع انه يحتاج لانهم بجيبون لك الفار مشرح بس تتعرفين على الاجزاء اللي محديينها


فذاكري السلايدات اللي منزلينها أ. غاده و أ. جميلة <<< مررره مفيده و واضحة


بالتوفيق بالاختبار تراه سهل بس يبيله شويه تركيز ،،


*شكراَ على الاسئلة اللي نزلتيهاا

فطومي
9th June 2009, 09:07 AM
مشكوره طموحي الجنون الله يوفقك وتجيبين ان شاء الله A+في كل المواد بس ليه مو راضي يتحمل معي يقول انه غير معرف ممكن تنزلينه مره ثانيه قلب2قلب2

AsSoOoOoOom
9th June 2009, 09:40 AM
طموحي الجنون

ما رح يحتاج تشرحي
لإنو كل الجروبات اللي اختبرت ما في حدا شرح
ولا هم فاضيين يمسكو كل بنت يخلوها تشرح

يجيكي الفار مشرح بس اكتبي البيانات
ويمكن يجيكي فارين مو واحد

الله يسهلها عليكي وعلى كل اللي ما امتحنو ويوفقكم يارب :ورده:

طموحي الجنون
9th June 2009, 01:02 PM
مشكوره طموحي الجنون الله يوفقك وتجيبين ان شاء الله A+في كل المواد بس ليه مو راضي يتحمل معي يقول انه غير معرف ممكن تنزلينه مره ثانيه قلب2قلب2

غريبه ليه مازبط معك

انا حملته وزبط معاي

رفعته ع موقع ثاني

ميد الاول

http://up3.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/6/9/02/bl2hl04g0.zip/jpg (http://up3.m5zn.com/download-2009-6-9-02-bl2hl04g0.zip)

وهذا لاخر جزيئية::

http://up3.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/6/9/03/ofd25v745.zip/jpg (http://up3.m5zn.com/download-2009-6-9-03-ofd25v745.zip)


دعوااتكم صبايا

وساموحنا وحللونا

:ورده:

هنـــاء
9th June 2009, 01:16 PM
مررررررررررررررررررره شكرررررا طموووووووووووحي ... سويتي فينا خير ياااااااااااااااااااارب يوفقك بالحين والفيز..

فطومي
9th June 2009, 05:10 PM
ن1ن1

فطومي
9th June 2009, 05:11 PM
الله يوفقك ويسعدك ماني عارفه ايش اقولك بس اللي اقدر اقوله الله ينولك اللي تتمنيييييينه

الفتي الذي قوي
16th June 2009, 10:17 AM
احم احم احم >>> وش دخلك عند البنات ض1

انا سدحت مشكلتي عند اخواني التماسيح بس ماعطوني وجه

قلت اسدحها عندكم يمكن القا احد يرد علي ض1

الموووهم يابنات انا انسان متوهق بالاحيا ولا ادري كيف اذاكرها

ووقتي كله يضيع عـ الترجمه

علما بأن درجاتي فيها زززززفت

فيالت اللي عندها حل او طريقه او اي شي تقدر تفيدي فيه

تقول لي

وراح اكوون شاكر لكم

وووبث

Dr.Tofi san
16th June 2009, 06:22 PM
^

^

^


ذاكر أسئله السي دي بس !!!!غ6


<<<< لا تسمع كلامي ههههههههه تراني مثلك مضيعه بالأحياء


لكني اتخذت قرار اذاكر الفاينل من أسئله السي دي بس !!!! ل3


إن شاء الله البنات الشطورات يفيدونك

الفتي الذي قوي
16th June 2009, 06:24 PM
^

^

^


ذاكر أسئله السي دي بس !!!!غ6


<<<< لا تسمع كلامي ههههههههه تراني مثلك مضيعه بالأحياء


لكني اتخذت قرار اذاكر الفاينل من أسئله السي دي بس !!!! ل3


إن شاء الله البنات الشطورات يفيدونك



اي سيدي

ياليت تعطيني اي شي اذاكره

Dr.Tofi san
16th June 2009, 06:29 PM
بنات ممكن تحملون لي أسئله السي دي حق الميد ترم الثاني ل3


ما أدري وش فيه مو راضي يتحمل معي .. :oh:


بليييييييييز بنوتات

سارا ~
16th June 2009, 06:31 PM
:

هذه هي أسئلة السي دي ..

:


غريبه ليه مازبط معك

انا حملته وزبط معاي

رفعته ع موقع ثاني

ميد الاول

http://up3.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/6/9/02/bl2hl04g0.zip/jpg (http://up3.m5zn.com/download-2009-6-9-02-bl2hl04g0.zip)

وهذا لاخر جزيئية::

http://up3.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/6/9/03/ofd25v745.zip/jpg (http://up3.m5zn.com/download-2009-6-9-03-ofd25v745.zip)


دعوااتكم صبايا

وساموحنا وحللونا

:ورده:

+


للي ماوصلهم ايميل مني

7

السلام عليكم بنات

تحت شعار لايلدغ المؤمن من الجحر مرتين

وبحكم انه فيرست ميد تيرم الحين

جابولنا اسئلة كثير من سي دي الكتاب

فجمعتها لكم للشابترس اللي داخله

معانا بالسيكند ميد تيرم



http://up3.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/5/23/06/hn23u06sv.zip/jpg (http://up3.m5zn.com/download-2009-5-23-06-hn23u06sv.zip)

ملاحظة:: الاسئلة +الاجوبة

موفقات جميعا

ودعواااااااااتكم

تحياااتي

طموحي الجنون


:

ويااااارب وفقنا جميعا ،،

Dr.Tofi san
16th June 2009, 06:35 PM
غريبه ليه مازبط معك

انا حملته وزبط معاي

رفعته ع موقع ثاني

ميد الاول

http://up3.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/6/9/02/bl2hl04g0.zip/jpg (http://up3.m5zn.com/download-2009-6-9-02-bl2hl04g0.zip)

وهذا لاخر جزيئية::

http://up3.m5zn.com/thumb/2009/6/9/03/ofd25v745.zip/jpg (http://up3.m5zn.com/download-2009-6-9-03-ofd25v745.zip)


دعوااتكم صبايا

وساموحنا وحللونا

:ورده:





حمل الأسئله اللي موجوده في رد طموحي الجنون وبالتوفيق


لأن أغلب الأسئله تجي منها وذاكرها بتركيز لأن إحتمال تجي على شكل صح وخطأ


هذي تبع أغلب الشابترات ما عدا ( 8 - 9 - 16 - 17 ) يعني جزئية الميد تيرم الثاني


وإن شاء الله راح ينزلونها البنات

Dr.Tofi san
16th June 2009, 06:38 PM
سارا


مشكوره يا عسل


بس أنا هذا الموقع ما يضبط معي في التحميل


تقدرين تحملينه السكند ميد تيرم على موقع ثاني ؟؟؟ بليز يا عسل

سارا ~
16th June 2009, 06:41 PM
^

ابشررري =)

:

جاري التحميل قلب2

:

الفتي الذي قوي
16th June 2009, 06:50 PM
تشكرات بنات

بس الاجابات موجوده ولا لا ؟؟

>>> سببت لكم قلق ض1

سارا ~
16th June 2009, 06:54 PM
أخي الفتى + د.توفي

تفضلوا هذه هي ع موقع تاني =)

:

جزئية المد الأول ,,

http://www.rofof.com/dw.png (http://www.rofof.com/6ucznh16/1.html)

:

جزئية المد الثاني ,,

http://www.rofof.com/dw.png (http://www.rofof.com/6qfxgr16/2.html)

:

جزئية الفاينال ,,

http://www.rofof.com/dw.png (http://www.rofof.com/6amjgb16/3.html)

:

* كل ملف مكتوب ف بدايته يشمل اي chapters (=

أخي الفتى .. كل الإجابات موجوده =)

تحت كل مجموعة أسئلة موجوده اجاباتها ،،

:

دعوآاتكمـ لا تحرمونا منها =)

:

ربي نسألك توفيقا من عندك ,,

=)

الفتي الذي قوي
16th June 2009, 06:57 PM
^

^

^

يعطيك الف الف الف عافيه

وانشا الله درجتك ماتقل عن +A

Dr.Tofi san
16th June 2009, 07:07 PM
مشكووووووووووووووووره يا سارا يا عسل أنتي


وربي أني دعيت لك من قلبي


الله يجزاك كل خير ويوفقك في الفيز العله والحين القلق ويارب فل مارك فيهن ومعاهم الكيم


يسعدك ربي حبيبتي

طموحي الجنون
18th June 2009, 11:34 AM
سارا حبيبة قلبي

شكرا جزيلا

ساعدتيني في رفع هالملف

ربي يوفقنا جميعا

عموما انا غير مسؤولة

ما اضمن لكم كل امتحان من سي دي كتاب

يعني ماتذاكروا الاسئلة وتنسوا المنهج

ذاكروا كل شئ وركزوا ع الاسئلة

معلومة مهمة الميد اللي راح ماجابوا شئ منها

يمكن جابوا كم شئ بس مو كل شئ

ربي يسهل علينا جميعااا

MiSs Roro
18th June 2009, 12:27 PM
^
^^

صـآدقه و الله
الله يعيين ان شاء الله :6:


بنـآت قلب2 ~

ياليت أحد ينسخ آخر جزء اللي هو الفاينل هنـآ
لأني حملته واذا جيت افتحه حاس ابو الدنيا علي
ويعلق جهـآزي بات1

فياليت تنسخونه:×


شاكره لكم مقدمـاً قلب2

طموحي الجنون
18th June 2009, 12:31 PM
8

هذا الشئ حملناه 3 مرات ع 3مواقع مختلفة

يمكن لانه كبير يعلق عليك

افضل تجربي تحمليه مرة ثانية شوفي صفحات اللي قبل

اذا لازال معلق عليك

ووورد حقك عربي حطي فوق خيارات بعدين تمكين

عموما حاعمله كوبي

بس زي ماقلت للميد ثاني فيه اسئلة فيها صورة مابتنزل

ثواني

طموحي الجنون
18th June 2009, 12:33 PM
بقية أسئلة السي دي اللي مادخلت معنا بالميد الاول والثاني

شابتر 12
Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle





Activities Quiz



1 . Which of these cells is (are) haploid? (Activity: Roles of Cell Division)



A and D

B

B and C

C and D

D


2 . A diploid organism whose somatic (nonsex) cells each contain 32 chromosomes produces gametes containing _____ chromosomes. (Activity: Roles of Cell Division)

32

8

16

30

64


3 . Which of these phases encompasses all of the stages of mitosis? (Activity: The Cell Cycle)



A

B

C

D

E


4 . During _____ both the contents of the nucleus and the cytoplasm are divided. (Activity: The Cell Cycle)

the mitotic phase

G1

S

G2

mitosis


5 . During _____ the cell grows and replicates both its organelles and its chromosomes. (Activity: The Cell Cycle)

S

cytokinesis

G1

interphase

mitosis


6 . Nucleoli are present during _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)

interphase

prophase

prometaphase

metaphase

anaphase


7 . Cytokinesis often, but not always, accompanies _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)

telophase

prometaphase

metaphase

anaphase

interphase


8 . Chromosomes become visible during _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)

metaphase

prophase

interphase

prometaphase

anaphase


9 . Centromeres divide and sister chromosomes become full-fledged chromosomes during _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)

metaphase

interphase

prometaphase

telophase

anaphase


10 . Spindle fibers attach to kinetochores during _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)

metaphase

prometaphase

interphase

anaphase

telophase


11 . Click to open the animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)

interphase

prophase

telophase

anaphase

metaphase


12 . Click to open the animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)

cytokinesis as it occurs in animal cells

metaphase

prometaphase

cytokinesis as it occurs in plant cells

prophase


13 . Click to open the animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)

prometaphase

prophase

anaphase

telophase

interphase


14 . Click to open the animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)

anaphase

metaphase

telophase

prometaphase

prophase


15 . Click to open the animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)

metaphase

cytokinesis as it occurs in plant cells

interphase

prometaphase

anaphase


16 . Click to open the animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)

metaphase

prophase

cytokinesis as it occurs in plant cells

prometaphase

anaphase


17 . Click to open the animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)

telophase

prophase

prometaphase

anaphase

metaphase


18 . During prophase a homologous pair of chromosomes consists of _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)

four chromosomes and two chromatids

two chromosomes and two chromatids

two chromosomes and four chromatids

one chromosome and two chromatids

one chromosome and four chromatids


19 . Which of these is NOT a carcinogen? (Activity: Causes of Cancer)

testosterone

cigarette smoke

UV light

fat

all of the above are carcinogens




الاجوووبة

________________________________________
1. Not Answered Which of these cells is (are) haploid? (Activity: Roles of Cell Division)


The Correct Answer: C and D

________________________________________
2. Not Answered A diploid organism whose somatic (nonsex) cells each contain 32 chromosomes produces gametes containing _____ chromosomes. (Activity: Roles of Cell Division)
The Correct Answer: 16

________________________________________
3. Not Answered Which of these phases encompasses all of the stages of mitosis? (Activity: The Cell Cycle)


The Correct Answer: E

________________________________________
4. Not Answered During _____ both the contents of the nucleus and the cytoplasm are divided. (Activity: The Cell Cycle)
The Correct Answer: the mitotic phase

________________________________________
5. Not Answered During _____ the cell grows and replicates both its organelles and its chromosomes. (Activity: The Cell Cycle)
The Correct Answer: interphase

________________________________________
6. Not Answered Nucleoli are present during _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)
The Correct Answer: interphase

________________________________________
7. Not Answered Cytokinesis often, but not always, accompanies _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)
The Correct Answer: telophase

________________________________________
8. Not Answered Chromosomes become visible during _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)
The Correct Answer: prophase

________________________________________
9. Not Answered Centromeres divide and sister chromosomes become full-fledged chromosomes during _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)
The Correct Answer: anaphase

________________________________________
10. Not Answered Spindle fibers attach to kinetochores during _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)
The Correct Answer: prometaphase

________________________________________
11. Not Answered Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)


The Correct Answer: anaphase

________________________________________
12. Not Answered Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)


The Correct Answer: cytokinesis as it occurs in animal cells

________________________________________
13. Not Answered Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)


The Correct Answer: prophase

________________________________________
14. Not Answered Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)


The Correct Answer: metaphase

________________________________________
15. Not Answered Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)


The Correct Answer: prometaphase

________________________________________
16. Not Answered Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)


The Correct Answer: cytokinesis as it occurs in plant cells

________________________________________
17. Not Answered Click on the art to see an animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)


The Correct Answer: telophase

________________________________________
18. Not Answered During prophase a homologous pair of chromosomes consists of _____. (Activity: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation)
The Correct Answer: two chromosomes and four chromatids

________________________________________
19. Not Answered Which of these is NOT a carcinogen? (Activity: Causes of Cancer)
The Correct Answer: all of the above are carcinogens


تكملة شابتر 12::

Chapter 12: The Cell Cycle





Chapter Quiz



1 . The person credited with first recognizing (in the 1860s) that living cells cannot arise spontaneously, but arise only from previously existing cells, is _____. (Overview ) [Hint]

Louis Pasteur

Robert Hooke

Rudolf Virchow

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

Watson


2 . The function of the cell cycle is to produce daughter cells that _____. (Concept 12.1 ) [Hint]

are genetically identical to the parent cell (assuming no mutation has occurred)

have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell but not the same genetic content

have a random assortment of maternal and paternal chromosomes

have the same number of chromatids as the parent cell had chromosomes

none of the above


3 . Sister chromatids _____. (Concept 12.1 ) [Hint]

are created when DNA is replicated

are attached at the centromere prior to division

are separated during mitosis

have matching copies of the chromosome's DNA

all of the above


4 . The complex of DNA and protein that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome is properly called _____. (Concept 12.1 ) [Hint]

a chromatid

a chloroplast

chromatin

a chromoplast

a centrosome


5 . The region of a chromosome holding the two double strands of replicated DNA together is called _____. (Concept 12.1 ) [Hint]

chromatin

a centriole

a centromere

a chromatid

an aster


6 . If an intestinal cell in a grasshopper contains 24 chromosomes, a grasshopper sperm cell would contain _____ chromosomes. (Concept 12.1 ) [Hint]

3

6

12

24

48


7 . The centromere is a region in which _____. (Concept 12.1 ) [Hint]

chromosomes become aligned during metaphase

microtubules are fastened to the centrioles during anaphase

the new cell plate forms in telophase

sister chromatids are attached to one another in prophase

the chromosomes are connected to the cell plate in metaphase


8 . How many maternal chromosomes are present in a somatic human cell in G1? (Concept 12.1 ) [Hint]

23

46

92

184

none of the above


9 . A cell entering the cell cycle with 32 chromosomes will produce two daughter cells, each with _____. (Concept 12.1 ) [Hint]

16 chromosomes

32 chromosomes

32 pairs of chromosomes

64 pairs of chromosomes

none of the above


10 . "Cytokinesis" refers to _____. (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

division of the entire cell

division of the nucleus

division of the cytoplasm

reduction in the number of chromosomes

movement of a cell from one place to another


11 . Chromatids are _____. (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

found only in aberrant chromosomes

held together by the centrioles

identical copies of each other if they are part of the same chromosome

the bacterial equivalent of eukaryotic chromosomes

composed of RNA


12 . If a cell contains 60 chromatids at the start of mitosis, how many chromosomes will be found in each daughter cell at the completion of the cell cycle? (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

15

30

45

60

120


13 . A biochemist measured the amount of DNA in cells growing in the laboratory and found that the quantity of DNA in the cells doubled _____. (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

between prophase and anaphase

between the G1 and G2 phases

during the M phase of the cell cycle

between the G2 phase and prophase

between anaphase and telophase


14 . A cell biologist carefully measured the quantity of DNA in grasshopper cells growing in cell culture. Cells examined during the G2 phase of the cell cycle contained 200 units of DNA. What would be the amount of DNA at G1 of the cell cycle in one of the grasshopper daughter cells? (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

50 units

100 units

between 50 and 100 units

200 units

400 units


15 . During interphase the genetic material of a typical eukaryotic cell is _____. (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

dispersed in the nucleus as long strands of chromatin

dispersed in the cytoplasm as long strands of chromatin

condensed and the chromosomes are often visible under the light microscope

attached to microtubule spindle fibers

transported through the nuclear pores


16 . DNA replication occurs in _____. (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

prophase of both mitosis and meiosis

metaphase of meiosis only

the S phase of interphase in both somatic and reproductive cells

the G1 phase of interphase in reproductive cells only

the cytokinesis portion of the cell's life cycle


17 . Chromatids form _____. (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

during G1

during G2

during the S phase

at the start of mitosis

at the start of meiosis


18 . If a somatic human cell is just about to divide, it has _____ chromatids? (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

92

23

46

0

There is insufficient information to answer the question.


19 . Which one of the following does not occur during, or because of, mitosis? (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

the production of two genetically identical daughter cells

condensed chromatin

separation of chromatids

replication of chromosomes

alignment of chromosomes along the cell's equator


20 . During what phase in the cell cycle would you find the most DNA per cell? (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

G1

G<SUB2

S1

S

prophase II


21 . In the telophase of mitosis, the mitotic spindle breaks down and the chromatin uncoils. This is essentially the opposite of what happens in _____. (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

prophase

interphase

metaphase

S phase

anaphase


22 . Which of the following phases of mitosis is essentially the opposite of prometaphase in terms of the nuclear envelope? (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

telophase

metaphase

S phase

interphase

anaphase


23 . Assume that you are dealing with a species in which the number of chromosomes in each somatic cell is 14. How many sister chromatids are present in the early telophase of mitosis? (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

0

7

14

28

none of the above


24 . At which point in the cell cycle do centrosomes begin to move apart to two poles of the cell in a dividing human skin cell? (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

S phase

G2 phase

prophase

metaphase

anaphase


25 . The phase of mitosis during which the chromosomes move toward separate poles of the cell is _____. (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

telophase

anaphase

metaphase

prophase

prometaphase


26 . One event occurring during prophase is _____. (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

the beginning of the formation of a spindle apparatus

the synthesis of a new nuclear envelope

the alignment of chromosomes in a single plane

cytokinesis

division of the centromere


27 . During anaphase of mitosis _____. (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

the centromeres divide

the centrioles are at opposite poles

a spindle made of microtubules is present

identical chromatids move to opposite poles

all of the above


28 . Which one of the following represents a mismatch or incorrect description? (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

prophase: chromosomes become more tightly coiled

metaphase: chromosomes line up on the equatorial plane

metaphase: the nuclear envelope disappears

anaphase: there is movement of the chromosomes to the poles

telophase: chromosomes become more extended


29 . Sister chromatids separate during _____. (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

anaphase

G1 phase

G2 phase

metaphase

prophase


30 . In animal cell mitosis, the cleavage furrow forms during _____. (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

anaphase

G1 phase

cytokinesis

metaphase

prophase


31 . At which stage of mitosis are chromosomes lined up in one plane in preparation for their separation to opposite poles of the cell? (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

prophase

metaphase

anaphase

telophase

interphase


32 . You would know a dividing cell was a plant cell rather than an animal cell if you saw that _____. (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

it had formed a cell plate

it had two pairs of centrioles during prophase

it had microtubules

the nucleolus was visible during metaphase

it had formed a cleavage furrow


33 . Which one of the following processes does not occur in dividing bacteria? (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

replication of DNA

separation of the origins of replication

mitosis

binary fission

inward growth of the plasma membrane


34 . During binary fission in a bacterium _____. (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

the two DNA molecules float free in the cell and are guided to daughter cells by a spindle-like apparatus

the origins of replication move apart

the two DNA molecules divide in half, forming four DNA fragments

the two DNA molecules attach to the centrioles

the two DNA molecules break up into plasmids


35 . Binary fission in bacterial cells involves _____. (Concept 12.2 ) [Hint]

prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase

disintegration of the nuclear membrane

distribution of a copy of the single parental chromosome to each daughter cell

formation of a cell plate

formation of a spindle apparatus


36 . When a cell in S phase is fused with a cell in G1, _____. (Concept 12.3 ) [Hint]

DNA synthesis begins immediately in the original G1 nucleus

the replication of DNA occurring in the original S nucleus is terminated

the two nuclei fuse and further division is arrested

the chromosomes of the original G1 nucleus condense in preparation for mitosis

the original G1 cell will divide immediately


37 . Tissue culture experiments with PDGF demonstrate that without this substance _____. (Concept 12.3 ) [Hint]

bacterial cells lose their resistance to antibiotics

cells divide in an uncontrolled fashion, confirming its role as a cell division inhibitor

fibroblasts fail to divide

animal cells are unable to attach to the substratum

the various kinases, such as MPF, are unable to bind to cyclin


38 . You would be unlikely to see which of the following human cells dividing? (Concept 12.3 ) [Hint]

nerve cell

skin cell

cancer cell

cell from an embryo

intestinal lining cell


39 . Observations of cancer cells in culture support the hypothesis that cancer cells _____. (Concept 12.3 ) [Hint]

do not exhibit density-dependent inhibition

produce molecules that inhibit the growth factors required for cell division

exhibit anchorage dependence

spend the majority of their time in the G0 phase

do all of the above


40 . What is the difference between a benign tumor and a malignant tumor? (Concept 12.3 ) [Hint]

Benign tumors arise by transformation; malignant tumors do not.

Cells of benign tumors do not metastasize; those of malignant tumors do.

Cells of benign tumors metastasize; those of malignant tumors do not.

Benign tumors will not kill you; malignant tumors will.

Benign tumors do not arise by transformation; malignant tumors do.




الأجوبة::

________________________________________
1. Not Answered The person credited with first recognizing (in the 1860s) that living cells cannot arise spontaneously, but arise only from previously existing cells, is _____. (Overview )
The Correct Answer: Rudolf Virchow

________________________________________
2. Not Answered The function of the cell cycle is to produce daughter cells that _____. (Concept 12.1 )
The Correct Answer: are genetically identical to the parent cell (assuming no mutation has occurred)

________________________________________
3. Not Answered Sister chromatids _____. (Concept 12.1 )
The Correct Answer: all of the above

________________________________________
4. Not Answered The complex of DNA and protein that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome is properly called _____. (Concept 12.1 )
The Correct Answer: chromatin

________________________________________
5. Not Answered The region of a chromosome holding the two double strands of replicated DNA together is called _____. (Concept 12.1 )
The Correct Answer: a centromere

________________________________________
6. Not Answered If an intestinal cell in a grasshopper contains 24 chromosomes, a grasshopper sperm cell would contain _____ chromosomes. (Concept 12.1 )
The Correct Answer: 12

________________________________________
7. Not Answered The centromere is a region in which _____. (Concept 12.1 )
The Correct Answer: sister chromatids are attached to one another in prophase

________________________________________
8. Not Answered How many maternal chromosomes are present in a somatic human cell in G1? (Concept 12.1 )
The Correct Answer: 23

________________________________________
9. Not Answered A cell entering the cell cycle with 32 chromosomes will produce two daughter cells, each with _____. (Concept 12.1 )
The Correct Answer: 32 chromosomes

________________________________________
10. Not Answered "Cytokinesis" refers to _____. (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: division of the cytoplasm

________________________________________
11. Not Answered Chromatids are _____. (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: identical copies of each other if they are part of the same chromosome

________________________________________
12. Not Answered If a cell contains 60 chromatids at the start of mitosis, how many chromosomes will be found in each daughter cell at the completion of the cell cycle? (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: 30

________________________________________
13. Not Answered A biochemist measured the amount of DNA in cells growing in the laboratory and found that the quantity of DNA in the cells doubled _____. (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: between the G1 and G2 phases

________________________________________
14. Not Answered A cell biologist carefully measured the quantity of DNA in grasshopper cells growing in cell culture. Cells examined during the G2 phase of the cell cycle contained 200 units of DNA. What would be the amount of DNA at G1 of the cell cycle in one of the grasshopper daughter cells? (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: 100 units

________________________________________
15. Not Answered During interphase the genetic material of a typical eukaryotic cell is _____. (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: dispersed in the nucleus as long strands of chromatin

________________________________________
16. Not Answered DNA replication occurs in _____. (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: the S phase of interphase in both somatic and reproductive cells

________________________________________
17. Not Answered Chromatids form _____. (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: during the S phase

________________________________________
18. Not Answered If a somatic human cell is just about to divide, it has _____ chromatids? (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: 92

________________________________________
19. Not Answered Which one of the following does not occur during, or because of, mitosis? (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: replication of chromosomes

________________________________________
20. Not Answered During what phase in the cell cycle would you find the most DNA per cell? (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: G<SUB2

________________________________________
21. Not Answered In the telophase of mitosis, the mitotic spindle breaks down and the chromatin uncoils. This is essentially the opposite of what happens in _____. (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: prophase

________________________________________
22. Not Answered Which of the following phases of mitosis is essentially the opposite of prometaphase in terms of the nuclear envelope? (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: telophase

________________________________________
23. Not Answered Assume that you are dealing with a species in which the number of chromosomes in each somatic cell is 14. How many sister chromatids are present in the early telophase of mitosis? (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: 0

________________________________________
24. Not Answered At which point in the cell cycle do centrosomes begin to move apart to two poles of the cell in a dividing human skin cell? (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: prophase

________________________________________
25. Not Answered The phase of mitosis during which the chromosomes move toward separate poles of the cell is _____. (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: anaphase

________________________________________
26. Not Answered One event occurring during prophase is _____. (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: the beginning of the formation of a spindle apparatus

________________________________________
27. Not Answered During anaphase of mitosis _____. (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: all of the above

________________________________________
28. Not Answered Which one of the following represents a mismatch or incorrect description? (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: metaphase: the nuclear envelope disappears

________________________________________
29. Not Answered Sister chromatids separate during _____. (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: anaphase

________________________________________
30. Not Answered In animal cell mitosis, the cleavage furrow forms during _____. (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: cytokinesis

________________________________________
31. Not Answered At which stage of mitosis are chromosomes lined up in one plane in preparation for their separation to opposite poles of the cell? (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: metaphase

________________________________________
32. Not Answered You would know a dividing cell was a plant cell rather than an animal cell if you saw that _____. (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: it had formed a cell plate

________________________________________
33. Not Answered Which one of the following processes does not occur in dividing bacteria? (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: mitosis

________________________________________
34. Not Answered During binary fission in a bacterium _____. (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: the origins of replication move apart

________________________________________
35. Not Answered Binary fission in bacterial cells involves _____. (Concept 12.2 )
The Correct Answer: distribution of a copy of the single parental chromosome to each daughter cell

________________________________________
36. Not Answered When a cell in S phase is fused with a cell in G1, _____. (Concept 12.3 )
The Correct Answer: DNA synthesis begins immediately in the original G1 nucleus

________________________________________
37. Not Answered Tissue culture experiments with PDGF demonstrate that without this substance _____. (Concept 12.3 )
The Correct Answer: fibroblasts fail to divide

________________________________________
38. Not Answered You would be unlikely to see which of the following human cells dividing? (Concept 12.3 )
The Correct Answer: nerve cell

________________________________________
39. Not Answered Observations of cancer cells in culture support the hypothesis that cancer cells _____. (Concept 12.3 )
The Correct Answer: do not exhibit density-dependent inhibition

________________________________________
40. Not Answered What is the difference between a benign tumor and a malignant tumor? (Concept 12.3 )
The Correct Answer: Cells of benign tumors do not metastasize; those of malignant tumors do.



شابتر 13::

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles





Activities Quiz



1 . Click to open the animation. What name is given to this process? (Activity: Asexual and Sexual Life Cycles)

meiosis

sexual reproduction

fertilization

gametogenesis

asexual reproduction


2 . Gametes are produced by _____. (Activity: Asexual and Sexual Life Cycles)

the cell cycle

fertilization

meiosis

mitosis

asexual reproduction


3 . Normal human gametes carry _____ chromosomes. (Activity: Asexual and Sexual Life Cycles)

23 pairs of

23

5

46

46 pairs of


4 . Meiosis I produces _____ cells, each of which is _____. (Activity: Meiosis Animation)

two ... haploid

four ... haploid

two... diploid

four ... diploid

two... identical to the other


5 . Meiosis II typically produces _____ cells, each of which is _____. (Activity: Meiosis Animation)

two ... haploid

four ... haploid

two... diploid

four ... diploid

four ... identical to the other


6 . Click to open the animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____. (Activity: Meiosis Animation)

anaphase II

prophase I

telophase I and cytokinesis

telophase II and cytokinesis

prophase II


7 . Click to open the animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____. (Activity: Meiosis Animation)

anaphase I

telophase I and cytokinesis

prophase II

interphase

anaphase II


8 . Click to open the animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____. (Activity: Meiosis Animation)

telophase and cytokinesis

telophase I and cytokinesis

telophase II and cytokinesis

telophase I

telophase II


9 . During _____ sister chromatids separate. (Activity: Meiosis Animation)

prophase I

prophase II

anaphase II

interphase

metaphase I


10 . Click to open the animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____. (Activity: Meiosis Animation)

telophase and cytokinesis

telophase II and cytokinesis

prophase II and cytokinesis

interphase

telophase I and cytokinesis


11 . At the end of _____ and cytokinesis, haploid cells contain chromosomes that each consist of two sister chromatids. (Activity: Meiosis Animation)

metaphase II

telophase I

telophase

telophase II

interphase


12 . Click to open the animation. This is an animation of _____.
(Activity: Meiosis Animation)

prophase I

metaphase II

metaphase I

telophase II and cytokinesis

prophase II


13 . Click to open the animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____. (Activity: Meiosis Animation)

anaphase I

interphase

anaphase II

metaphase II

prophase I


14 . Click to open the animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____. (Activity: Meiosis Animation)

anaphase I

telophase I and cytokinesis

prophase II

metaphase II

metaphase I


15 . Synapsis occurs during _____. (Activity: Meiosis Animation)

prophase I

telophase I and cytogenesis

prophase II

metaphase II

anaphase II


16 . Homologous chromosomes migrate to opposite poles during _____. (Activity: Meiosis Animation)

telophase II and cytokinesis

prophase II

anaphase I

metaphase I

metaphase II


17 . During _____ chromosomes align single file along the equator of a haploid cell. (Activity: Meiosis Animation)

prophase I

metaphase I

anaphase I

metaphase II

telophase I and cytokinesis


18 . Click to open the animation. This animation illustrates the events of _____. (Activity: Meiosis Animation)

metaphase II

prophase I

prophase II

telophase I and cytokinesis

anaphase I


19 . At the end of _____ and cytokinesis there are four haploid cells. (Activity: Meiosis Animation)

telophase II

prophase II

anaphase I

prophase I

interphase


20 . During _____ a spindle forms in a haploid cell. (Activity: Meiosis Animation)

prophase I

anaphase II

telophase I and cytokinesis

metaphase II

prophase II


21 . Click to open the animation. This animation illustrates _____. (Activity: Meiosis Animation)

anaphase II

prophase II

anaphase I

interphase

prophase I


22 . Click to open the animation. This animation illustrates the process of _____. (Activity: Origins of Genetic Variation)

random fertilization

centromere separation

karyokinesis

synapsis and crossing over

cytokinesis


23 . Click to open the animation. Which of these gametes contains one or more recombinant chromosomes? (Activity: Origins of Genetic Variation)


A and B

B and C

A and C

A and D

D and E




الاجووبة::

تكملة شابتر 13::
Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles





Chapter Quiz



1 . Which of the following statements about genes is false? (Concept 13.1 ) [Hint]

Genes are made up of DNA.

Genes are found on chromosomes.

Genes are transmitted during sexual reproduction, but not during asexual reproduction.

Every individual inherits thousands of genes from each of his or her parents.

Genes can program cells to make enzymes or other proteins.


2 . How many genes are present in the human genome? (Concept 13.1 ) [Hint]

23

46

hundreds

tens of thousands

a virtually infinite number


3 . What is a locus? (Concept 13.1 ) [Hint]

the precise location of a gene on a chromosome

a structure that appears during prophase I and consists of two paired genes

the precise DNA sequence of a gene

a type of spore made only by fungi

a cell with two chromosome sets


4 . Sexual and asexual reproduction are alike in that _____. (Concept 13.1 ) [Hint]

they both give rise to genetically distinct offspring

they both involve two parents

they both require meiosis to complete the reproductive cycle

they can both occur in multicellular organisms

in both cases, every parent transmits all of its genes to its progeny


5 . A clone is the product of _____. (Concept 13.1 ) [Hint]

asexual reproduction

sexual reproduction

mitosis

meiosis

The first and third answers are correct.

The second and fourth answers are correct.


6 . Unless the chromosomes were stained to show band patterns, a karyotype would be least likely to show which of the following? (Concept 13.2 ) [Hint]

an extra chromosome

a large part of a chromosome duplicated

a missing chromosome

part of a chromosome turned around

the attachment of a large part of a chromosome to another chromosome


7 . A karyotype is _____. (Concept 13.2 ) [Hint]

the physical traits a person has

a method of identifying crossover events

all the possible gametes a person could produce

a photograph of all of an individual's chromosomes

a list of all the genes a person carries


8 . The preparation of a karyotype involves all of the following steps except _____. (Concept 13.2 ) [Hint]

isolating diploid cells from an individual

staining the chromosomes with a specific dye

taking a picture of all of the chromosomes from an interphase cell

arranging the chromosomes according to length, staining pattern, and shape

matching homologous pairs of chromosomes


9 . Which one, if any, of the following statements is false? (Concept 13.2 ) [Hint]

Diploid cells can divide by mitosis.

Diploid cells can divide by meiosis.

Haploid cells can divide by mitosis.

Haploid cells can divide by meiosis.

All of the statements are true.


10 . Which of the following contributes to the life cycle called alternation of generations? (Concept 13.2 ) [Hint]

multicellular haploid stage (gametophyte)

multicellular diploid stage (sporophyte)

zygote

spores

all of the above


11 . The sexual cycle of the multicellular alga Fucus involves _____. (Concept 13.2 ) [Hint]

mitosis only

both mitosis and meiosis

both mitosis and fertilization

only meiosis and fertilization

mitosis, meiosis, and fertilization


12 . A life cycle in which the only multicellular form is haploid is most typical of _____. (Concept 13.2 ) [Hint]

primates

plants

fungi

sporophytes

fish


13 . Which of the following results in cells that contain half the parental chromosome number? (Concept 13.2 ) [Hint]

cytokinesis

mitosis

meiosis

interphase

metaphase


14 . In sexually reproducing species, the chromosome number remains stable over time because _____ and _____ always alternate. (Concept 13.2 ) [Hint]

meiosis ... fertilization

meiosis ... mitosis

mitosis ... fertilization

meiosis ... interphase

meiosis I ... meiosis II


15 . The egg (ovum) of a rabbit contains 22 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are in the somatic (body) cells of a rabbit? (Concept 13.2 ) [Hint]

11

22

44

88

132


16 . In a diploid cell containing 10 chromosomes, meiosis results in the formation of daughter cells containing _____ chromosomes. (Concept 13.2 ) [Hint]

5

10

20

40

0


17 . How many pairs of autosomes do humans have? (Concept 13.2 ) [Hint]

23

22

2

1

It depends on the sex of the individual.


18 . Which of the following statements about homologous chromosomes is correct? (Concept 13.2 ) [Hint]

They are found in animal cells but not in plant cells.

They have genes for the same traits at the same loci.

They pair up in prophase II.

They are found in haploid cells.

They are found in the cells of human females but not in human males.


19 . Humans have 46 chromosomes. That number of (human) chromosomes will be found in _____. (Concept 13.2 ) [Hint]

all cells in anaphase of mitosis

all the egg and sperm cells

all gamete-producing cells after meiosis I

liver cells

all the cells of the body


20 . When we say that an organism is haploid, we mean that _____. (Concept 13.2 ) [Hint]

its cells each have one chromosome

it has one half of a chromosome

its cells have a single set of chromosomes

its cells have two sets of chromosomes

none of the above


21 . Which one of the following is not a function of meiosis in humans? (Concept 13.2 ) [Hint]

production of eggs

production of sperm

decreasing the number of chromosomes

multiplication of body cells

none of the above


22 . Somatic cells in humans contain _____ set(s) of chromosomes and are therefore termed _____. (Concept 13.2 ) [Hint]

one ... diploid

two ... haploid

one ... haploid

two ... diploid

three ... triploid


23 . Nearly all life cycles have both haploid and diploid phases. Usually, the transition from haploid to diploid takes place _____. (Concept 13.2 ) [Hint]

during crossing over in meiosis

when DNA is replicated during the S phase of the cell cycle

when mitotic cytokinesis occurs

at fertilization, when gametes fuse

during gastrulation


24 . Spores and gametes are different in that _____. (Concept 13.2 ) [Hint]

gametes never resemble spores morphologically

gametes are always haploid while spores are diploid

gametes can fuse to form a zygote, but spores can develop into independent organisms without first forming a zygote

only the formation of gametes contributes to genetic variation

gametes are derived directly from sporophytes to form gametophytes


25 . At the end of telophase I of meiosis and cytokinesis, there are _____. (Concept 13.3 ) [Hint]

four haploid cells

two diploid cells

four diploid cells

one haploid ovum and three polar bodies

two haploid cells


26 . What is the result when a diploid cell undergoes meiosis? (Concept 13.3 ) [Hint]

two diploid cells

two haploid cells

four diploid cells

four haploid cells

two haploid cells and two diploid cells


27 . Synapsis occurs during _____. (Concept 13.3 ) [Hint]

anaphase I

prophase I

cytokinesis

prophase II

metaphase I


28 . During anaphase II _____. (Concept 13.3 ) [Hint]

homologues separate and migrate toward opposite poles

sister chromatids separate and migrate toward opposite poles

nuclei re-form

chromosomes line up in one plane

the synaptonemal complex disappears


29 . During anaphase I _____. (Concept 13.3 ) [Hint]

homologues separate and migrate toward opposite poles

sister chromatids separate and migrate toward opposite poles

nuclei re-form

chromosomes line up in one plane

the cell is haploid


30 . Cytokinesis is the _____. (Concept 13.3 ) [Hint]

exchange of homologous regions of nonsister chromatids

formation of tetrads

independent assortment of chromosomes

lining up of tetrads at the metaphase plate

division of one cell into two


31 . What is the function of meiosis? (Concept 13.3 ) [Hint]

to make exact copies of the parent cell

to make one cell with twice the number of chromosomes as the parent pairs

to make four cells with the same chromosome number as the parent

to make cells with a haploid (half that of the parents) number of chromosomes

none of the above


32 . Crossing over occurs during _____. (Concept 13.3 ) [Hint]

cytokinesis

metaphase I

prophase II

metaphase II

prophase I


33 . Regions of chromosomes where nonsister chromatids cross over are called _____. (Concept 13.3 ) [Hint]

inversions

homologues

kinetochores

chiasmata

tetrads


34 . Crossing over does not _____. (Concept 13.3 ) [Hint]

provide genetic variation

occur in gamete-producing cells

occur in the prophase of mitosis

usually yield genetically different chromatids

occur in most plants


35 . An organism has a haploid chromosome number n = 4. How many tetrads will form during meiosis? (Concept 13.3 ) [Hint]

2

3

4

8

16


36 . Which event occurs only during prophase I of the first meiotic division? (Concept 13.3 ) [Hint]

Homologous chromosomes line up at the center of the cell.

Synapsis of homologous pairs occurs.

The nuclear membrane breaks down.

Replication of DNA takes place.

A spindle of microtubules forms.


37 . In a male mammal, every cell that undergoes meiosis gives rise to _____ sperm. (Concept 13.3 ) [Hint]

one

two

four

no set number

zero


38 . Which one of the following occurs in meiosis, but not mitosis? (Concept 13.3 ) [Hint]

The cells formed have the same combination of genes as found in the initial cell.

Homologous chromosomes separate.

The nuclear envelope disappears.

Sister chromatids undergo disjunction.

A spindle apparatus forms.


39 . Which function below makes meiosis more complicated than mitosis? (Concept 13.3 ) [Hint]

decreasing the chromosome number to haploid

introducing genetic variation among the daughter cells

ensuring that each daughter cell gets a single, complete set of chromosomes

undergoing two rounds of cytokinesis

all of the above


40 . Ignoring crossover, how many kinds of gametes can be produced by an organism with a diploid number of 8? (Concept 13.4 ) [Hint]

2

4

8

16

32


41 . Which of the following does not contribute to genetic variation in sexually reproducing species? (Concept 13.4 ) [Hint]

crossing over

independent assortment

random fertilization

cytokinesis

none of the above


42 . In humans, the haploid number of chromosomes is 23. Independent assortment has the possibility of producing _____ different types of gametes. (Concept 13.4 ) [Hint]

232

1 million

223

24

100,000


43 . The diploid number of chromosomes in a certain animal is 8 (2n = 8). How do the four pairs of homologous chromosomes align and separate during meiosis? (Concept 13.4 ) [Hint]

All of the maternal chromosomes always move to one pole, and all the paternal chromosomes always move to the other pole.

All 16 chromatids move together.

Exactly two maternal and two paternal chromosomes always move to each of the two poles.

The first to move influences all the others.

They align and assort independently to form any of 16 different combinations.


44 . In a diploid set of chromosomes, one member of each pair of homologous chromosomes is derived from the father (paternal), and the other comes from the mother (maternal). If 2n = 6, what is the probability of obtaining a gamete in which all the chromosomes are paternal ones? (Concept 13.4 ) [Hint]

1/4

1/8

1/16

1/32

cannot be determined from these data


45 . The major contribution of sex to evolution is _____. (Concept 13.4 ) [Hint]

it is the only mechanism for species to reproduce

it provides a method to increase genetic variation

it provides a way in which somatic mutations can be inherited

The first and second answers are correct.

The second and third answers are correct.




الأجوبة::
Summary: 0% Correct
0%
0%
100%


Of 45 questions, here are your results:
0 correct or not graded
0 incorrect
45 unanswered
Submitted on Sun Jun 7 04:42:03 UTC+0300 2009
________________________________________
1. Not Answered Which of the following statements about genes is false? (Concept 13.1 )
The Correct Answer: Genes are transmitted during sexual reproduction, but not during asexual reproduction.

________________________________________
2. Not Answered How many genes are present in the human genome? (Concept 13.1 )
The Correct Answer: tens of thousands

________________________________________
3. Not Answered What is a locus? (Concept 13.1 )
The Correct Answer: the precise location of a gene on a chromosome

________________________________________
4. Not Answered Sexual and asexual reproduction are alike in that _____. (Concept 13.1 )
The Correct Answer: they can both occur in multicellular organisms

________________________________________
5. Not Answered A clone is the product of _____. (Concept 13.1 )
The Correct Answer: The first and third answers are correct.

________________________________________
6. Not Answered Unless the chromosomes were stained to show band patterns, a karyotype would be least likely to show which of the following? (Concept 13.2 )
The Correct Answer: part of a chromosome turned around

________________________________________
7. Not Answered A karyotype is _____. (Concept 13.2 )
The Correct Answer: a photograph of all of an individual's chromosomes

________________________________________
8. Not Answered The preparation of a karyotype involves all of the following steps except _____. (Concept 13.2 )
The Correct Answer: taking a picture of all of the chromosomes from an interphase cell

________________________________________
9. Not Answered Which one, if any, of the following statements is false? (Concept 13.2 )
The Correct Answer: Haploid cells can divide by meiosis.

________________________________________
10. Not Answered Which of the following contributes to the life cycle called alternation of generations? (Concept 13.2 )
The Correct Answer: all of the above

________________________________________
11. Not Answered The sexual cycle of the multicellular alga Fucus involves _____. (Concept 13.2 )
The Correct Answer: mitosis, meiosis, and fertilization

________________________________________
12. Not Answered A life cycle in which the only multicellular form is haploid is most typical of _____. (Concept 13.2 )
The Correct Answer: fungi

________________________________________
13. Not Answered Which of the following results in cells that contain half the parental chromosome number? (Concept 13.2 )
The Correct Answer: meiosis

________________________________________
14. Not Answered In sexually reproducing species, the chromosome number remains stable over time because _____ and _____ always alternate. (Concept 13.2 )
The Correct Answer: meiosis ... fertilization

________________________________________
15. Not Answered The egg (ovum) of a rabbit contains 22 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are in the somatic (body) cells of a rabbit? (Concept 13.2 )
The Correct Answer: 44

________________________________________
16. Not Answered In a diploid cell containing 10 chromosomes, meiosis results in the formation of daughter cells containing _____ chromosomes. (Concept 13.2 )
The Correct Answer: 5

________________________________________
17. Not Answered How many pairs of autosomes do humans have? (Concept 13.2 )
The Correct Answer: 22

________________________________________
18. Not Answered Which of the following statements about homologous chromosomes is correct? (Concept 13.2 )
The Correct Answer: They have genes for the same traits at the same loci.

________________________________________
19. Not Answered Humans have 46 chromosomes. That number of (human) chromosomes will be found in _____. (Concept 13.2 )
The Correct Answer: liver cells

________________________________________
20. Not Answered When we say that an organism is haploid, we mean that _____. (Concept 13.2 )
The Correct Answer: its cells have a single set of chromosomes

________________________________________
21. Not Answered Which one of the following is not a function of meiosis in humans? (Concept 13.2 )
The Correct Answer: multiplication of body cells

________________________________________
22. Not Answered Somatic cells in humans contain _____ set(s) of chromosomes and are therefore termed _____. (Concept 13.2 )
The Correct Answer: two ... diploid

________________________________________
23. Not Answered Nearly all life cycles have both haploid and diploid phases. Usually, the transition from haploid to diploid takes place _____. (Concept 13.2 )
The Correct Answer: at fertilization, when gametes fuse

________________________________________
24. Not Answered Spores and gametes are different in that _____. (Concept 13.2 )
The Correct Answer: gametes can fuse to form a zygote, but spores can develop into independent organisms without first forming a zygote

________________________________________
25. Not Answered At the end of telophase I of meiosis and cytokinesis, there are _____. (Concept 13.3 )
The Correct Answer: two haploid cells

________________________________________
26. Not Answered What is the result when a diploid cell undergoes meiosis? (Concept 13.3 )
The Correct Answer: four haploid cells

________________________________________
27. Not Answered Synapsis occurs during _____. (Concept 13.3 )
The Correct Answer: prophase I

________________________________________
28. Not Answered During anaphase II _____. (Concept 13.3 )
The Correct Answer: sister chromatids separate and migrate toward opposite poles

________________________________________
29. Not Answered During anaphase I _____. (Concept 13.3 )
The Correct Answer: homologues separate and migrate toward opposite poles

________________________________________
30. Not Answered Cytokinesis is the _____. (Concept 13.3 )
The Correct Answer: division of one cell into two

________________________________________
31. Not Answered What is the function of meiosis? (Concept 13.3 )
The Correct Answer: to make cells with a haploid (half that of the parents) number of chromosomes

________________________________________
32. Not Answered Crossing over occurs during _____. (Concept 13.3 )
The Correct Answer: prophase I

________________________________________
33. Not Answered Regions of chromosomes where nonsister chromatids cross over are called _____. (Concept 13.3 )
The Correct Answer: chiasmata

________________________________________
34. Not Answered Crossing over does not _____. (Concept 13.3 )
The Correct Answer: occur in the prophase of mitosis

________________________________________
35. Not Answered An organism has a haploid chromosome number n = 4. How many tetrads will form during meiosis? (Concept 13.3 )
The Correct Answer: 4

________________________________________
36. Not Answered Which event occurs only during prophase I of the first meiotic division? (Concept 13.3 )
The Correct Answer: Synapsis of homologous pairs occurs.

________________________________________
37. Not Answered In a male mammal, every cell that undergoes meiosis gives rise to _____ sperm. (Concept 13.3 )
The Correct Answer: four

________________________________________
38. Not Answered Which one of the following occurs in meiosis, but not mitosis? (Concept 13.3 )
The Correct Answer: Homologous chromosomes separate.

________________________________________
39. Not Answered Which function below makes meiosis more complicated than mitosis? (Concept 13.3 )
The Correct Answer: all of the above

________________________________________
40. Not Answered Ignoring crossover, how many kinds of gametes can be produced by an organism with a diploid number of 8? (Concept 13.4 )
The Correct Answer: 16

________________________________________
41. Not Answered Which of the following does not contribute to genetic variation in sexually reproducing species? (Concept 13.4 )
The Correct Answer: cytokinesis

________________________________________
42. Not Answered In humans, the haploid number of chromosomes is 23. Independent assortment has the possibility of producing _____ different types of gametes. (Concept 13.4 )
The Correct Answer: 223

________________________________________
43. Not Answered The diploid number of chromosomes in a certain animal is 8 (2n = 8). How do the four pairs of homologous chromosomes align and separate during meiosis? (Concept 13.4 )
The Correct Answer: They align and assort independently to form any of 16 different combinations.

________________________________________
44. Not Answered In a diploid set of chromosomes, one member of each pair of homologous chromosomes is derived from the father (paternal), and the other comes from the mother (maternal). If 2n = 6, what is the probability of obtaining a gamete in which all the chromosomes are paternal ones? (Concept 13.4 )
The Correct Answer: 1/8

________________________________________
45. Not Answered The major contribution of sex to evolution is _____. (Concept 13.4 )
The Correct Answer: it provides a method to increase genetic variation



شابتر 14::


Chapter 14: Mendel and the Gene Idea





Activities Quiz



1 . The result of the following cross indicates the orange eyes are _____ black eyes. (Activity: Monohybrid Cross)



incompletely dominant to

recessive to

co-dominant to

dominant to

larger than


2 . If O represents the allele for black eyes (dominant) and o represents the allele for orange eyes (recessive), what would be the genotypic ratio of a cross between a heterozygous black-eyed MendAlien and an orange-eyed MendAlien? (Activity: Monohybrid Cross)

1 homozygous black (OO): 1 heterozygote (black) (Oo): 1 homozygous orange (oo)

2 homozygous black (OO): 1 heterozygote (black) (Oo): 1 homozygous orange (oo)

1 homozygous black (OO): 0 heterozygote (black) (Oo): 1 homozygous orange (oo)

0 homozygous black (OO): 1 heterozygote (black) (Oo): 1 homozygous orange (oo)

0 homozygous black (OO): 0 heterozygote (black) (Oo): 1 homozygous orange (oo)


3 . If O represents the allele for black eyes (dominant) and o represents the allele for orange eyes (recessive), what would be the phenotypic ratio of a cross between a heterozygous black-eyed MendAlien and an orange-eyed MendAlien? (Activity: Monohybrid Cross)

3 black : 1 orange

1 black : 3 orange

0 black : 1 orange

1 black : 1 orange

1 black : 0 orange


4 . The result of the following cross indicates that the genotype of the female parent is _____. (Activity: Monohybrid Cross)



bb

BB

Bb

b

B


5 . The result of the following cross indicates that the genotype of the male parent is _____. (Activity: Monohybrid Cross)



bb

BB

Bb

b

B


6 . The result of the following cross indicates that genotypically the offspring _____. (Activity: Monohybrid Cross)



are all bb

are all BB

are all Bb

exhibit a 3 BB : 1 bb ratio

exhibit a 1 BB : 2 Bb : 1 bb ratio


7 . Which of these is a testcross? (Activity: Monohybrid Cross)

A? x aa

A? x AA

A? x Aa

A? x A?

aa x aa


8 . That each gamete contains a single allele of the eye color gene is an illustration of _____. (Activity: Monohybrid Cross)



Beadle and Tatum's one gene¬one enzyme hypothesis

Mendel's law of segregation only

Darwin's theory of natural selection

Mendel's law of independent assortment only

Both Mendel's law of segregation and Mendel's law of independent assortment.


9 . What is the genotype of the parent with orange eyes and white skin? (Note: orange eyes are recessive.) (Activity: Dihybrid Cross)



OoWw

ooWW

ooWw

OOWW

ooww


10 . Black eyes are dominant to orange eyes, and green skin is dominant to white skin. Sam, a MendAlien with black eyes and green skin, has a parent with orange eyes and white skin. Carole is a MendAlien with orange eyes and white skin. If Sam and Carole were to mate, the predicted phenotypic ratio of their offspring would be _____. (Activity: Dihybrid Cross)

1 black eyes, green skin : 1 black eyes, white skin : 1 orange eyes, green skin : 1 orange eyes, white skin

3 black eyes, green skin : 3 black eyes, white skin : 9 orange eyes, green skin : 1 orange eyes, white skin

1 black eyes, green skin : 3 black eyes, white skin : 3 orange eyes, green skin : 9 orange eyes, white skin

9 black eyes, green skin : 3 black eyes, white skin : 3 orange eyes, green skin : 1 orange eyes, white skin

There is insufficient information to determine Sam's genotype.


11 . In order to determine the genotype of a MendAlien with black eyes and green skin, you would cross this individual with a(n) _____ individual. (Activity: Dihybrid Cross)

ooww

OOWW

OOww

ooWW

OoWw


12 . Black eyes are dominant to orange eyes, and green skin is dominant to white skin. Sam, a MendAlien with black eyes and green skin, has a parent with orange eyes and white skin. Carole is a MendAlien with orange eyes and white skin. If Sam and Carole were to mate, the predicted phenotypic ratio of their offspring would be _____. (Activity: Dihybrid Cross)

1 black eyes, green skin : 1 black eyes, white skin : 1 orange eyes, green skin : 1 orange eyes, white skin

3 black eyes, green skin : 3 black eyes, white skin : 9 orange eyes, green skin : 1 orange eyes, white skin

1 black eyes, green skin : 3 black eyes, white skin : 3 orange eyes, green skin : 9 orange eyes, white skin

9 black eyes, green skin : 3 black eyes, white skin : 3 orange eyes, green skin : 1 orange eyes, white skin

There is insufficient information to determine Sam's genotype.


13 . A cross between an individual with orange eyes and green skin and an individual with black eyes and white skin is an example of a _____ cross. (Activity: Dihybrid Cross)

test

difficult

dihybrid

trihybrid

monohybrid


14 . A phenotypic ratio of 9:3:3:1 in the offspring of a cross indicates that _____. (Activity: Dihybrid Cross)

one parent is homozygous dominant and one parent is homozygous recessive

one parent is heterozygous and one parent is homozygous recessive

one parent is homozygous dominant and one parent is heterozygous

both parents are heterozygous for both genes

both parents are homozygous dominant


15 . The observed distribution of alleles into gametes is an illustration of _____. (Activity: Dihybrid Cross)



Mendel's law of segregation only

Thienemann's rule

Eimer's principle

Mendel's law of independent assortment only

Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment


16 . An individual heterozygous for eye color, skin color, and number of eyes mates with an individual who is homozygous recessive for all three characters; what would be the expected phenotypic ratio of their offspring? [Hint: O = black eyes, o = orange eyes; W = green skin, w = white skin; C = two eyes, c = one eye] (Activity: Dihybrid Cross)

9 black eyes, green skin, two eyes : 3 black eyes, green skin, one eye : 3 black eyes, white skin, two eyes : 1 black eyes, white skin, one eye : 9 orange eyes, green skin, two eyes : 3 orange eyes, green skin, one eye : 3 orange eyes, white skin, two eyes : 1 orange eyes, white skin, one eye

9 black eyes, green skin, two eyes : 3 black eyes, green skin, one eye : 3 black eyes, white skin, two eyes : 1 black eyes, white skin, one eye

1 black eyes, green skin, two eyes : 1 black eyes, green skin, one eye : 1 black eyes, white skin, two eyes : 1 orange eyes, green skin, two eyes : 1 orange eyes, white skin, two eyes : 1 orange eyes, white skin, one eye

1 black eyes, green skin, two eyes : 1 black eyes, green skin, one eye : 1 black eyes, white skin, two eyes : 1 black eyes, white skin, one eye : 1 orange eyes, green skin, two eyes : 1 orange eyes, green skin, one eye : 1 orange eyes, white skin, two eyes : 1 orange eyes, white skin, one eye

9 orange eyes, green skin, two eyes : 9 orange eyes, green skin, one eye : 9 orange eyes, white skin, two eyes : 1 orange eyes, white skin, one eye


17 . A OoWw x ooww cross yields a phenotypic ratio of approximately 5 black eyes, green skin : 5 orange eyes, white skin : 1 black eyes, white skin : 1 orange eyes, green skin. Which of the following best explains these results? (Activity: Dihybrid Cross)

Mendel's law of independent assortment is being violated.

Mendel's law of segregation is being violated.

The genes for eye color and skin color are co-dominant.

The heterozygous individual is male, and the homozygous individual is female.

Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment are being violated.


18 . In the following cross the genotype of the female parent is OoWw. What is the genotype of the male parent? [Hint: O = black eyes, o = orange eyes, W = green skin, w = white skin] (Activity: Dihybrid Cross)



OoWw

OOWW

OOWw

OoWW

ooWW


19 . In a situation in which genes assort independently, what is the ratio of the gametes produced by an AaBB individual? (Activity: Dihybrid Cross)

1 A : 1 B

3 A : 1 B

3 AB : 1 ab

1 AB : 1 aB

3 AA : 1 BB


20 . Mendel worked _____. (Activity: Gregor's Garden)

on the Human Genome Project

with fruit flies

on problems involving characters that were inherited together more often than expected by chance

on gene mapping

in a monastery


21 . Andalusian chickens with the genotype CBCB are black, those with the genotype CWCW are white, and those with the genotype CBCW are gray. What is the relationship between the CB and CW alleles? (Activity: Incomplete Dominance)

CB is dominant to CW

CB is recessive to CW

CW is dominant to CB

The relationship between the alleles is one of incomplete dominance.

CB and CW are co-dominant


22 . Andalusian chickens with the genotype CBCB are black, those with the genotype CWCW are white, and those with the genotype CBCW are gray. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of a CBCW x CBCW cross? (Activity: Incomplete Dominance)

1 black : 1 white

3 black : 1 white

1 black : 2 gray : 1 white

3 gray : 1 white

1 black : 1 gray


23 . Andalusian chickens with the genotype CBCB are black, those with the genotype CWCW are white, and those with the genotype CBCW are gray. What is the expected genotypic ratio of a CBCW x CBCW cross? (Activity: Incomplete Dominance)

1 CBCB : 1 CBCW

3 CBCB : 1 CWCW

1 CBCB : 2 CBCW : 1 CWCW

2 CBCB : 1 CBCW : 2 CWCW

9 CBCB : 3 CBCW : 3 CWCB : 1 CWCW


24 . Andalusian chickens with the genotype CBCB are black, those with the genotype CWCW are white, and those with the genotype CBCW are gray. What is the expected genotypic ratio of a CBCB x CBCW cross? (Activity: Incomplete Dominance)

1 CBCB : 1 CBCW

3 CBCB : 1 CWCW

1 CBCB : 2 CBCW : 1 CWCW

2 CBCB : 1 CBCW : 2 CWCW

9 CBCB : 3 CBCW : 3 CWCB : 1 CWCW


25 . Andalusian chickens with the genotype CBCB are black, those with the genotype CWCW are white, and those with the genotype CBCW are gray. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of a CBCB x CBCW cross? (Activity: Incomplete Dominance)

1 black : 1 white

3 black : 1 white

1 black : 2 gray : 1 white

3 gray : 1 white

1 black : 1 gray




الاجوبة::
Summary: 0% Correct
0%
0%
100%


Of 25 questions, here are your results:
0 correct or not graded
0 incorrect
25 unanswered
Submitted on Sun Jun 7 04:53:00 UTC+0300 2009
________________________________________
1. Not Answered The result of the following cross indicates the orange eyes are _____ black eyes. (Activity: Monohybrid Cross)


The Correct Answer: recessive to

________________________________________
2. Not Answered If O represents the allele for black eyes (dominant) and o represents the allele for orange eyes (recessive), what would be the genotypic ratio of a cross between a heterozygous black-eyed MendAlien and an orange-eyed MendAlien? (Activity: Monohybrid Cross)
The Correct Answer: 0 homozygous black (OO): 1 heterozygote (black) (Oo): 1 homozygous orange (oo)

________________________________________
3. Not Answered If O represents the allele for black eyes (dominant) and o represents the allele for orange eyes (recessive), what would be the phenotypic ratio of a cross between a heterozygous black-eyed MendAlien and an orange-eyed MendAlien? (Activity: Monohybrid Cross)
The Correct Answer: 1 black : 1 orange

________________________________________
4. Not Answered The result of the following cross indicates that the genotype of the female parent is _____. (Activity: Monohybrid Cross)


The Correct Answer: bb

________________________________________
5. Not Answered The result of the following cross indicates that the genotype of the male parent is _____. (Activity: Monohybrid Cross)


The Correct Answer: BB

________________________________________
6. Not Answered The result of the following cross indicates that genotypically the offspring _____. (Activity: Monohybrid Cross)


The Correct Answer: are all Bb

________________________________________
7. Not Answered Which of these is a testcross? (Activity: Monohybrid Cross)
The Correct Answer: A? x aa

________________________________________
8. Not Answered That each gamete contains a single allele of the eye color gene is an illustration of _____. (Activity: Monohybrid Cross)


The Correct Answer: Mendel's law of segregation only

________________________________________
9. Not Answered What is the genotype of the parent with orange eyes and white skin? (Note: orange eyes are recessive.) (Activity: Dihybrid Cross)


The Correct Answer: ooww

________________________________________
10. Not Answered Black eyes are dominant to orange eyes, and green skin is dominant to white skin. Sam, a MendAlien with black eyes and green skin, has a parent with orange eyes and white skin. Carole is a MendAlien with orange eyes and white skin. If Sam and Carole were to mate, the predicted phenotypic ratio of their offspring would be _____. (Activity: Dihybrid Cross)
The Correct Answer: 1 black eyes, green skin : 1 black eyes, white skin : 1 orange eyes, green skin : 1 orange eyes, white skin

________________________________________
11. Not Answered In order to determine the genotype of a MendAlien with black eyes and green skin, you would cross this individual with a(n) _____ individual. (Activity: Dihybrid Cross)
The Correct Answer: ooww

________________________________________
12. Not Answered Black eyes are dominant to orange eyes, and green skin is dominant to white skin. Sam, a MendAlien with black eyes and green skin, has a parent with orange eyes and white skin. Carole is a MendAlien with orange eyes and white skin. If Sam and Carole were to mate, the predicted phenotypic ratio of their offspring would be _____. (Activity: Dihybrid Cross)
The Correct Answer: 1 black eyes, green skin : 1 black eyes, white skin : 1 orange eyes, green skin : 1 orange eyes, white skin

________________________________________
13. Not Answered A cross between an individual with orange eyes and green skin and an individual with black eyes and white skin is an example of a _____ cross. (Activity: Dihybrid Cross)
The Correct Answer: dihybrid

________________________________________
14. Not Answered A phenotypic ratio of 9:3:3:1 in the offspring of a cross indicates that _____. (Activity: Dihybrid Cross)
The Correct Answer: both parents are heterozygous for both genes

________________________________________
15. Not Answered The observed distribution of alleles into gametes is an illustration of _____. (Activity: Dihybrid Cross)


The Correct Answer: Mendel's laws of segregation and independent assortment

________________________________________
16. Not Answered An individual heterozygous for eye color, skin color, and number of eyes mates with an individual who is homozygous recessive for all three characters; what would be the expected phenotypic ratio of their offspring? [Hint: O = black eyes, o = orange eyes; W = green skin, w = white skin; C = two eyes, c = one eye] (Activity: Dihybrid Cross)
The Correct Answer: 1 black eyes, green skin, two eyes : 1 black eyes, green skin, one eye : 1 black eyes, white skin, two eyes : 1 black eyes, white skin, one eye : 1 orange eyes, green skin, two eyes : 1 orange eyes, green skin, one eye : 1 orange eyes, white skin, two eyes : 1 orange eyes, white skin, one eye

________________________________________
17. Not Answered A OoWw x ooww cross yields a phenotypic ratio of approximately 5 black eyes, green skin : 5 orange eyes, white skin : 1 black eyes, white skin : 1 orange eyes, green skin. Which of the following best explains these results? (Activity: Dihybrid Cross)
The Correct Answer: Mendel's law of independent assortment is being violated.

________________________________________
18. Not Answered In the following cross the genotype of the female parent is OoWw. What is the genotype of the male parent? [Hint: O = black eyes, o = orange eyes, W = green skin, w = white skin] (Activity: Dihybrid Cross)


The Correct Answer: OOWw

________________________________________
19. Not Answered In a situation in which genes assort independently, what is the ratio of the gametes produced by an AaBB individual? (Activity: Dihybrid Cross)
The Correct Answer: 1 AB : 1 aB

________________________________________
20. Not Answered Mendel worked _____. (Activity: Gregor's Garden)
The Correct Answer: in a monastery

________________________________________
21. Not Answered Andalusian chickens with the genotype CBCB are black, those with the genotype CWCW are white, and those with the genotype CBCW are gray. What is the relationship between the CB and CW alleles? (Activity: Incomplete Dominance)
The Correct Answer: The relationship between the alleles is one of incomplete dominance.

________________________________________
22. Not Answered Andalusian chickens with the genotype CBCB are black, those with the genotype CWCW are white, and those with the genotype CBCW are gray. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of a CBCW x CBCW cross? (Activity: Incomplete Dominance)
The Correct Answer: 1 black : 2 gray : 1 white

________________________________________
23. Not Answered Andalusian chickens with the genotype CBCB are black, those with the genotype CWCW are white, and those with the genotype CBCW are gray. What is the expected genotypic ratio of a CBCW x CBCW cross? (Activity: Incomplete Dominance)
The Correct Answer: 1 CBCB : 2 CBCW : 1 CWCW

________________________________________
24. Not Answered Andalusian chickens with the genotype CBCB are black, those with the genotype CWCW are white, and those with the genotype CBCW are gray. What is the expected genotypic ratio of a CBCB x CBCW cross? (Activity: Incomplete Dominance)
The Correct Answer: 1 CBCB : 1 CBCW

________________________________________
25. Not Answered Andalusian chickens with the genotype CBCB are black, those with the genotype CWCW are white, and those with the genotype CBCW are gray. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of a CBCB x CBCW cross? (Activity: Incomplete Dominance)
The Correct Answer: 1 black : 1 gray


تكملة شابتر 14::
Chapter 14: Mendel and the Gene Idea





Chapter Quiz




1 . Which choice below is a basic difference between Mendel's particulate hypothesis and the blending hypothesis? (Concept 14.1 ) [Hint]

The blending hypothesis, but not the particulate hypothesis, maintained that mutation is the major source of new gene combinations.

The blending hypothesis, but not the particulate hypothesis, maintained that the two alleles at any given locus are always different.

The blending hypothesis, but not the particulate hypothesis, maintained that the traits governed by genes in the egg are different from the traits governed by genes in the sperm.

The blending hypothesis, but not the particulate hypothesis, maintained that after a mating, the genetic material provided by each of the two parents is mixed in the offspring, losing its individual identity.

All of the above.



2 . If a plant variety is true-breeding for a dominant trait, then _____. (Concept 14.1 ) [Hint]

if the plant were allowed to self-pollinate, the dominant and recessive traits would consistently appear in a 3:1 ratio among the progeny

the plant is heterozygous for the trait

if the plant were crossed with a heterozygote, one-half of the progeny would show the dominant trait, and one-half would show the recessive trait

if the plant were allowed to self-pollinate, all of the progeny would have the dominant trait

the variety is immune to mutation



3 . A = big apples; R = red apples; a = small apples; r = yellow apples. You have one tree that produces big yellow apples and another tree that produces small red apples. When the two are crossed, you find that half of the new trees produce big red apples and half produce big yellow apples. What are the genotypes of the parents? (Concept 14.1 ) [Hint]

AArr and aaRr

Aarr and aaRr

AARr and Aarr

AaRr and AaRr

AaRr and aarr



4 . Assume tall (T) is completely dominant to dwarf (t). If a homozygous dominant individual is crossed with a homozygous dwarf, the offspring will _____. (Concept 14.1 ) [Hint]

all be intermediate in height

all be tall

be 1/2 tall and 1/2 dwarf

be 3/4 tall and 1/4 dwarf

all be short



5 . The F1 generation differed from the F2 in Mendel's experiments in that _____. (Concept 14.1 ) [Hint]

all of the F1 showed the dominant phenotype, whereas only half of the F2 did

all of the F1 showed the dominant phenotype, but only three-fourths of the F2 did

all of the F1 showed the dominant phenotype, and all of the F2 showed the recessive phenotype

one-half of the F1 showed the dominant phenotype, and three-fourths of the F2 did

none of the F1 showed the dominant phenotype, but one-half of the F2 did



6 . In a certain plant, the alleles A, B, and C are completely dominant to the alleles a, b, and c. A plant with the genotype AABbcc will have the same phenotype as a plant with the genotype _____. (Concept 14.1 ) [Hint]

Aabbcc

aabbcc

AaBBcc

AABBCc

none of the above



7 . Pea plants are tall if they have the genotype TT or Tt, and they are short if they have genotype tt. A tall plant is mated with a short plant. Which outcome below would indicate that the tall plant was heterozygous? (Concept 14.1 ) [Hint]

All of the offspring are short.

All of the offspring are tall.

The ratio of tall offspring to short offspring is 3:1.

The ratio of tall offspring to short offspring is 1:1.

None of the above.



8 . What is indicated when a single-character testcross yields offspring that all have the dominant phenotype? (Concept 14.1 ) [Hint]

The parent with the dominant phenotype was homozygous.

The parent with the dominant phenotype was heterozygous.

Epistasis has occurred.

The alleles are codominant.

Both parents are heterozygous.



9 . If a homozygous dominant is crossed with a heterozygote for a given trait, the offspring will be _____. (Concept 14.1 ) [Hint]

all of the dominant phenotype

1/4 of the recessive phenotype

all homozygous dominant

all homozygous recessive

present in a 9:3:3:1 ratio



10 . In Mendel's monohybrid cross of purple-flowered and white-flowered peas, all members of the F1 generation had the _____ phenotype because their genotype was _____ at the flower-color locus. (Concept 14.1 ) [Hint]

white-flowered ... homozygous recessive

white-flowered ... heterozygous

purple-flowered ... homozygous recessive

purple-flowered ... homozygous dominant

purple-flowered ... heterozygous



11 . If the two traits that Mendel looked at in his dihybrid cross of smooth yellow peas with wrinkled green peas had been controlled by genes that were located near each other on the same chromosome, then the F2 generation _____. (Concept 14.1 ) [Hint]

would have contained four phenotypes in a 9:3:3:1 ratio

would have contained only individuals that were heterozygous at both loci

would have deviated from the 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio that is predicted by the law of independent assortment

would have contained no individuals that were heterozygous at both loci

none of the above



12 . In carrying out his breeding studies, Mendel examined characters that had which of the following properties? (Concept 14.1 ) [Hint]

They were controlled by loci that were (or behaved as if they were) on different chromosomes.

It was possible to isolate true-breeding varieties for each trait.

The traits varied in an either-or fashion.

The characters each were controlled by a single gene.

All of the above.



13 . The law of independent assortment _____. (Concept 14.1 ) [Hint]

states that the alleles at different loci segregate independently from one another during a dihybrid cross

can account for a 9:3:3:1 ratio seen in the F2 generation

applies only to genes that are present on different chromosomes (or behave as if they were)

The first and second answers are correct.

The first, second, and third answers are correct.



14 . Homologous pairs of chromosomes often _____. (Concept 14.1 ) [Hint]

carry different genes for different traits

differ in length

contain different alleles

are not both present in diploid somatic cells

are paired up in the G2 phase of the cell cycle



15 . If each parent can produce 100 genetically distinct gametes, how many genetically distinct offspring can two parents produce? (Concept 14.2 ) [Hint]

10,000

200

1,000

100

1,000,000



16 . Pea flowers may be purple (P) or white (p). Pea seeds may be round (R) or wrinkled (r). What proportion of the offspring from the cross PpRr x PpRr will have white flowers and wrinkled seeds? (Concept 14.2 ) [Hint]

0

1/16

1/4

3/4

1/2



17 . An AABbccDdEeFF individual is crossed with an individual with the genotype AaBBCCDdEeff. What is the probability that their offspring will have the genotype AaBBCcddEEFf? (Concept 14.2 ) [Hint]

1/2

1/4

1/16

1/32

1/64



18 . If a heterozygous plant is allowed to self-pollinate, what proportion of the offspring will also be heterozygous? (Concept 14.2 ) [Hint]

1/4

1/3

1/2

2/3

all of them



19 . An individual with the genotype AABbCcDD can make how many different kinds of gametes? (Concept 14.2 ) [Hint]

2

4

8

16

32



20 . A red bull is crossed with a white cow and all of the offspring are roan, an intermediate color that is caused by the presence of both red and white hairs. This is an example of genes that are _____. (Concept 14.3 ) [Hint]

nonhomologous

epistatic

codominant

polygenic

completely dominant



21 . Flower color in snapdragons is an example of incomplete dominance. When a red-flowered plant is crossed with a white-flowered plant, the F1 generation has pink flowers. If a pink-flowered plant is crossed with another pink-flowered plant, the progeny plants will be _____. (Concept 14.3 ) [Hint]

100% pink

100% red

25% red, 50% pink, and 25% white

50% pink and 50% red

25% white and 75% red



22 . Which choice below describes the Tay-Sachs allele at the molecular level? (Concept 14.3 ) [Hint]

dominant

incompletely dominant

codominant

recessive

none of the above



23 . A man who has type B blood and a woman who has type A blood could have children of which of the following phenotypes? (Concept 14.3 ) [Hint]

A or B only

AB only

AB or O

A, B, or O

A, B, AB, or O



24 . Which of the following matings cannot produce a child with blood type O? The letters refer to blood types (phenotypes). (Concept 14.3 ) [Hint]

A x A

A x B

O x AB

O x O

none of the above



25 . A woman with type O blood is expecting a child. Her husband is type A. Both the woman's father and her husband's father had type B blood. What is the probability that the child will have type O blood? (Concept 14.3 ) [Hint]

100%

75%

50%

25%

0%



26 . A single genetic locus that controls more than one trait is said to be _____. (Concept 14.3 ) [Hint]

polygenic

epistatic

pleiotropic

autotrophic

somatic



27 . Sometimes, one gene pair will interact to control the expression of a second gene pair (for example, albinism and coat color in mice). In this case, the genotype for the first gene can completely obscure the genotype at the second gene. This type of gene interaction is called _____. (Concept 14.3 ) [Hint]

incomplete dominance

epistasis

gene regulation

second pair control

complete dominance



28 . Tail length in a certain species of armadillo falls along a continuum, following a normal distribution. Assuming that environmental factors do not play an important role in determining tail length, this type of variation probably reflects _____. (Concept 14.3 ) [Hint]

polygenic inheritance

pleiotropy

epistasis

complete dominance

incomplete dominance



29 . Tay-Sachs disease runs in Rebecca's family. On a family pedigree, she saw a shaded circle. This represented a _____. (Concept 14.4 ) [Hint]

male with Tay-Sachs

female carrier

male carrier

female with Tay-Sachs

male of unknown genotype



30 . A man who can roll his tongue and a woman who cannot roll her tongue have a son who can roll his tongue (R = can roll tongue; r = can't roll tongue). The son is curious about whether his father is homozygous or heterozygous for the tongue-rolling trait. Which of the following facts would allow him to know? (Concept 14.4 ) [Hint]

His father's mother cannot roll her tongue.

His paternal grandfather and his paternal grandmother can both roll their tongues.

The son's sister is a tongue roller.

The son's own daughter cannot roll her tongue.

The son submits his own blood sample to a local genotyping lab, and they establish that he is heterozygous for the trait.



31 . Michelle and Keith are apparently normal, but their daughter was born with alkaptonuria, an inherited metabolic disorder. If alkaptonuria is like most other human hereditary disorders, the probability of their next child being born with alkaptonuria is _____. (Concept 14.4 ) [Hint]

0

1/4

1/2

2/3

3/4



32 . Tom's brother suffers from phenylketonuria (PKU), a recessive disorder. The brothers' parents do not have PKU. What are the chances that Tom, who is normal for this trait, is a carrier of PKU? (Concept 14.4 ) [Hint]

1/4

1/3

1/2

2/3

4/3



33 . A couple, both descended from eastern European (Ashkenazic) Jews, visit a genetic counselor before trying to have children. In view of their ethnic background, the counselor recommends that they be tested to see if they are carriers for _____. (Concept 14.4 ) [Hint]

cystic fibrosis

hemophilia

sickle-cell disease

hypercholesterolemia

Tay-Sachs



34 . Cystic fibrosis, which is usually lethal before the age of reproduction, is a homozygous recessive trait. Why do cases continue to arise, even though people with the disease rarely live to reproduce? (Concept 14.4 ) [Hint]

Because new mutations continually introduce this harmful condition into the population.

Because the harmful allele "hides" within heterozygous individuals, one-fourth of the offspring of two heterozygotes would be afflicted.

Because mosquitoes can transfer the disease from person to person.

Because people continue to make inappropriate lifestyle choices.

None of the above.



35 . The genetic disease cystic fibrosis is caused by a defective allele that _____. (Concept 14.4 ) [Hint]

encodes a dysfunctional enzyme that fails to break down brain lipids

causes hemoglobin molecules to malfunction

encodes a defective chloride-channel membrane transport protein

encodes a neurotoxin

encodes an enzyme that breaks down muscle fibers



36 . In people with sickle-cell disease, red blood cells break down, clump, and clog the blood vessels. The blood vessels and the broken cells accumulate in the spleen. Among other things this leads to physical weakness, heart failure, pain, and brain damage. Such a suite of symptoms can be explained by _____. (Concept 14.4 ) [Hint]

the polygenic nature of sickle-cell disease

the pleiotropic effects of the sickle-cell allele

an epistatic interaction between the sickle-cell allele and a proteolytic enzyme gene

a bacterial infection interacting with the sickle-cell allele

side effects of the drugs used to cure sickle-cell disease



37 . When two average-height parents give birth to a child exhibiting achondroplasia, it is most likely due to a new mutation. This is because _____. (Concept 14.4 ) [Hint]

the frequency of achondroplasia is unknown

achondroplasia is a relatively rare disorder

achondroplasia is caused by an allele that is always expressed, therefore the parents must not have the allele

such mutations are statistically predictable

none of the above



38 . It is far more common to find human genetic disease caused by _____ alleles than by _____ alleles because _____. (Concept 14.4 ) [Hint]

dominant ... recessive ... dominant alleles have an evolutionary advantage over recessive alleles

dominant ... recessive ... dominant alleles became dominant because they aid the survival of the organism carrying them

recessive ... dominant ... harmful recessive alleles can survive in the heterozygote without any selection pressure against them

recessive ... dominant ... even when homozygous, recessive alleles usually do not cause as much damage as dominant alleles

none of the above



39 . Huntington's disease is an example of a genetic disorder caused by _____. (Concept 14.4 ) [Hint]

a lethal dominant allele that afflicts an individual later in life

a nonlethal dominant allele

a late-acting recessive allele

homozygous recessive alleles

multiple alleles



40 . Heart disease, diabetes, cancer, alcoholism, and many mental illnesses can best be described as _____. (Concept 14.4 ) [Hint]

simple Mendelian disorders

infectious diseases caused by microorganisms

multifactorial disorders with a possible polygenic component

the symptoms of Huntington's disease

the results of a bad lifestyle



41 . Fetal cells may be removed along with fluid from the womb by a process known as _____. (Concept 14.4 ) [Hint]

karyotyping

testcrossing

amniocentesis

sonogramming

chorionic villus sampling



42 . In which genetic testing procedure would a physician remove a tiny tissue sample from the placenta? (Concept 14.4 ) [Hint]

chorionic villus sampling

amniocentesis

fetoscopy

ultrasound

none of the above






الاجووبة::
________________________________________
1. Not Answered Which choice below is a basic difference between Mendel's particulate hypothesis and the blending hypothesis? (Concept 14.1 )
The Correct Answer: The blending hypothesis, but not the particulate hypothesis, maintained that after a mating, the genetic material provided by each of the two parents is mixed in the offspring, losing its individual identity.

________________________________________
2. Not Answered If a plant variety is true-breeding for a dominant trait, then _____. (Concept 14.1 )
The Correct Answer: if the plant were allowed to self-pollinate, all of the progeny would have the dominant trait

________________________________________
3. Not Answered A = big apples; R = red apples; a = small apples; r = yellow apples. You have one tree that produces big yellow apples and another tree that produces small red apples. When the two are crossed, you find that half of the new trees produce big red apples and half produce big yellow apples. What are the genotypes of the parents? (Concept 14.1 )
The Correct Answer: AArr and aaRr

________________________________________
4. Not Answered Assume tall (T) is completely dominant to dwarf (t). If a homozygous dominant individual is crossed with a homozygous dwarf, the offspring will _____. (Concept 14.1 )
The Correct Answer: all be tall

________________________________________
5. Not Answered The F1 generation differed from the F2 in Mendel's experiments in that _____. (Concept 14.1 )
The Correct Answer: all of the F1 showed the dominant phenotype, but only three-fourths of the F2 did

________________________________________
6. Not Answered In a certain plant, the alleles A, B, and C are completely dominant to the alleles a, b, and c. A plant with the genotype AABbcc will have the same phenotype as a plant with the genotype _____. (Concept 14.1 )
The Correct Answer: AaBBcc

________________________________________
7. Not Answered Pea plants are tall if they have the genotype TT or Tt, and they are short if they have genotype tt. A tall plant is mated with a short plant. Which outcome below would indicate that the tall plant was heterozygous? (Concept 14.1 )
The Correct Answer: The ratio of tall offspring to short offspring is 1:1.

________________________________________
8. Not Answered What is indicated when a single-character testcross yields offspring that all have the dominant phenotype? (Concept 14.1 )
The Correct Answer: The parent with the dominant phenotype was homozygous.

________________________________________
9. Not Answered If a homozygous dominant is crossed with a heterozygote for a given trait, the offspring will be _____. (Concept 14.1 )
The Correct Answer: all of the dominant phenotype

________________________________________
10. Not Answered In Mendel's monohybrid cross of purple-flowered and white-flowered peas, all members of the F1 generation had the _____ phenotype because their genotype was _____ at the flower-color locus. (Concept 14.1 )
The Correct Answer: purple-flowered ... heterozygous

________________________________________
11. Not Answered If the two traits that Mendel looked at in his dihybrid cross of smooth yellow peas with wrinkled green peas had been controlled by genes that were located near each other on the same chromosome, then the F2 generation _____. (Concept 14.1 )
The Correct Answer: would have deviated from the 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio that is predicted by the law of independent assortment

________________________________________
12. Not Answered In carrying out his breeding studies, Mendel examined characters that had which of the following properties? (Concept 14.1 )
The Correct Answer: All of the above.

________________________________________
13. Not Answered The law of independent assortment _____. (Concept 14.1 )
The Correct Answer: The first, second, and third answers are correct.

________________________________________
14. Not Answered Homologous pairs of chromosomes often _____. (Concept 14.1 )
The Correct Answer: contain different alleles

________________________________________
15. Not Answered If each parent can produce 100 genetically distinct gametes, how many genetically distinct offspring can two parents produce? (Concept 14.2 )
The Correct Answer: 10,000

________________________________________
16. Not Answered Pea flowers may be purple (P) or white (p). Pea seeds may be round (R) or wrinkled (r). What proportion of the offspring from the cross PpRr x PpRr will have white flowers and wrinkled seeds? (Concept 14.2 )
The Correct Answer: 1/16

________________________________________
17. Not Answered An AABbccDdEeFF individual is crossed with an individual with the genotype AaBBCCDdEeff. What is the probability that their offspring will have the genotype AaBBCcddEEFf? (Concept 14.2 )
The Correct Answer: 1/64

________________________________________
18. Not Answered If a heterozygous plant is allowed to self-pollinate, what proportion of the offspring will also be heterozygous? (Concept 14.2 )
The Correct Answer: 1/2

________________________________________
19. Not Answered An individual with the genotype AABbCcDD can make how many different kinds of gametes? (Concept 14.2 )
The Correct Answer: 4

________________________________________
20. Not Answered A red bull is crossed with a white cow and all of the offspring are roan, an intermediate color that is caused by the presence of both red and white hairs. This is an example of genes that are _____. (Concept 14.3 )
The Correct Answer: codominant

________________________________________
21. Not Answered Flower color in snapdragons is an example of incomplete dominance. When a red-flowered plant is crossed with a white-flowered plant, the F1 generation has pink flowers. If a pink-flowered plant is crossed with another pink-flowered plant, the progeny plants will be _____. (Concept 14.3 )
The Correct Answer: 25% red, 50% pink, and 25% white

________________________________________
22. Not Answered Which choice below describes the Tay-Sachs allele at the molecular level? (Concept 14.3 )
The Correct Answer: codominant

________________________________________
23. Not Answered A man who has type B blood and a woman who has type A blood could have children of which of the following phenotypes? (Concept 14.3 )
The Correct Answer: A, B, AB, or O

________________________________________
24. Not Answered Which of the following matings cannot produce a child with blood type O? The letters refer to blood types (phenotypes). (Concept 14.3 )
The Correct Answer: O x AB

________________________________________
25. Not Answered A woman with type O blood is expecting a child. Her husband is type A. Both the woman's father and her husband's father had type B blood. What is the probability that the child will have type O blood? (Concept 14.3 )
The Correct Answer: 50%

________________________________________
26. Not Answered A single genetic locus that controls more than one trait is said to be _____. (Concept 14.3 )
The Correct Answer: pleiotropic

________________________________________
27. Not Answered Sometimes, one gene pair will interact to control the expression of a second gene pair (for example, albinism and coat color in mice). In this case, the genotype for the first gene can completely obscure the genotype at the second gene. This type of gene interaction is called _____. (Concept 14.3 )
The Correct Answer: epistasis

________________________________________
28. Not Answered Tail length in a certain species of armadillo falls along a continuum, following a normal distribution. Assuming that environmental factors do not play an important role in determining tail length, this type of variation probably reflects _____. (Concept 14.3 )
The Correct Answer: polygenic inheritance

________________________________________
29. Not Answered Tay-Sachs disease runs in Rebecca's family. On a family pedigree, she saw a shaded circle. This represented a _____. (Concept 14.4 )
The Correct Answer: female with Tay-Sachs

________________________________________
30. Not Answered A man who can roll his tongue and a woman who cannot roll her tongue have a son who can roll his tongue (R = can roll tongue; r = can't roll tongue). The son is curious about whether his father is homozygous or heterozygous for the tongue-rolling trait. Which of the following facts would allow him to know? (Concept 14.4 )
The Correct Answer: His father's mother cannot roll her tongue.

________________________________________
31. Not Answered Michelle and Keith are apparently normal, but their daughter was born with alkaptonuria, an inherited metabolic disorder. If alkaptonuria is like most other human hereditary disorders, the probability of their next child being born with alkaptonuria is _____. (Concept 14.4 )
The Correct Answer: 1/4

________________________________________
32. Not Answered Tom's brother suffers from phenylketonuria (PKU), a recessive disorder. The brothers' parents do not have PKU. What are the chances that Tom, who is normal for this trait, is a carrier of PKU? (Concept 14.4 )
The Correct Answer: 2/3

________________________________________
33. Not Answered A couple, both descended from eastern European (Ashkenazic) Jews, visit a genetic counselor before trying to have children. In view of their ethnic background, the counselor recommends that they be tested to see if they are carriers for _____. (Concept 14.4 )
The Correct Answer: Tay-Sachs

________________________________________
34. Not Answered Cystic fibrosis, which is usually lethal before the age of reproduction, is a homozygous recessive trait. Why do cases continue to arise, even though people with the disease rarely live to reproduce? (Concept 14.4 )
The Correct Answer: Because the harmful allele "hides" within heterozygous individuals, one-fourth of the offspring of two heterozygotes would be afflicted.

________________________________________
35. Not Answered The genetic disease cystic fibrosis is caused by a defective allele that _____. (Concept 14.4 )
The Correct Answer: encodes a defective chloride-channel membrane transport protein

________________________________________
36. Not Answered In people with sickle-cell disease, red blood cells break down, clump, and clog the blood vessels. The blood vessels and the broken cells accumulate in the spleen. Among other things this leads to physical weakness, heart failure, pain, and brain damage. Such a suite of symptoms can be explained by _____. (Concept 14.4 )
The Correct Answer: the pleiotropic effects of the sickle-cell allele

________________________________________
37. Not Answered When two average-height parents give birth to a child exhibiting achondroplasia, it is most likely due to a new mutation. This is because _____. (Concept 14.4 )
The Correct Answer: achondroplasia is caused by an allele that is always expressed, therefore the parents must not have the allele

________________________________________
38. Not Answered It is far more common to find human genetic disease caused by _____ alleles than by _____ alleles because _____. (Concept 14.4 )
The Correct Answer: recessive ... dominant ... harmful recessive alleles can survive in the heterozygote without any selection pressure against them

________________________________________
39. Not Answered Huntington's disease is an example of a genetic disorder caused by _____. (Concept 14.4 )
The Correct Answer: a lethal dominant allele that afflicts an individual later in life

________________________________________
40. Not Answered Heart disease, diabetes, cancer, alcoholism, and many mental illnesses can best be described as _____. (Concept 14.4 )
The Correct Answer: multifactorial disorders with a possible polygenic component

________________________________________
41. Not Answered Fetal cells may be removed along with fluid from the womb by a process known as _____. (Concept 14.4 )
The Correct Answer: amniocentesis

________________________________________
42. Not Answered In which genetic testing procedure would a physician remove a tiny tissue sample from the placenta? (Concept 14.4 )
The Correct Answer: chorionic villus sampling



شابتر 15>مدري معنا اولا بس احتياطا

Chapter 15: The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance





Activities Quiz




1 . Based on the results of this cross, you determine that _____. (Activity: Linked Genes and Crossing Over)


round eyes are dominant to vertical eyes, and the absence of a tooth is dominant to the presence of a tooth

round eyes are dominant to vertical eyes, and the presence of a tooth is dominant to the absence of a tooth

the allele for round eyes is linked to the allele for no tooth

vertical eyes are dominant to round eyes, and the absence of a tooth is dominant to the presence of a tooth

vertical eyes are dominant to round eyes, and the presence of a tooth is dominant to the absence of a tooth



2 . The results of the following cross indicate that the _____. (Activity: Linked Genes and Crossing Over)



absence of a tooth is dominant to the presence of a tooth

two genes are linked

MendAlien species is polyploid

absence of a tooth is dominant to vertical eyes

two genes assort independently



3 . An F1 individual can produce _____ different gametes when both eye and tooth genes are considered. (Activity: Linked Genes and Crossing Over)



1

2

3

4

5



4 . Given these chromosomes, which of the choices represents the possible recombinant gametes? (Activity: Linked Genes and Crossing Over)

























5 . The results of a F1 testcross are: 250 bald head, four ears : 247 hairy head, six ears : 21 bald head, six ears : 19 hairy head, four ears. How many map units apart are the head and ear genes? (Activity: Linked Genes and Crossing Over)

3.5

3.9

7.5

50.5

92.6



6 . Which of the individuals is homozygous recessive for both of the gene pairs? (Activity: Linked Genes and Crossing Over)



the female parent

the male parent

the F1 generation

both the male and female parents

both the male parent and the F1 generation



7 . The results of the following cross indicates that the _____. (Activity: Linked Genes and Crossing Over)



absence of a tooth is dominant to the presence of a tooth

two genes are linked

MendAlien species is polyploid

absence of a tooth is dominant to vertical eyes

two genes assort independently



8 . The recombination frequency between gene A and gene B is 8.4%, the recombination frequency between gene A and gene C is 6.8%, and the recombination frequency between gene B and gene C is 15.2%. Which of these is the correct arrangement of these genes? (Activity: Linked Genes and Crossing Over)

ABC

ACB

BCA

CAB

CBA



9 . A color-blind woman mates with a male with normal color vision. Which of these results would indicate that color blindness is caused by an X-linked recessive allele? (Activity: Sex-Linked Genes)

Half of the sons and half of the daughters are color-blind.

All of the daughters, and none of the sons, are color-blind.

All of the sons, and none of the daughters, are color-blind.

The offspring occur in a ratio of 3 color-blind : 1 normal vision.

The offspring occur in a ratio of 9 normal vision males : 3 color-blind vision males : 3 normal vision females : 1 color-blind female.



10 . Color blindness is an X-linked recessive trait. A color-blind man has a daughter with normal color vision. What is the genotype of the daughter? (Activity: Sex-Linked Genes)

XCXc

XCXC

XcXc

XCY

XcY



11 . Color blindness is an X-linked recessive trait. A color-blind man has a daughter with normal color vision. She mates with a male who has normal color vision. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of their offspring? (Activity: Sex-Linked Genes)

1 normal vision female : 1 color-blind female : 1 normal vision male : 1 color-blind male

All the offspring have normal color vision.

2 normal vision females : 1 normal vision male : 1 color-blind male

3 normal vision female : 1 color-blind male

1 normal vision female : 1 color-blind male



12 . Color blindness is an X-linked recessive trait. A color-blind man has a daughter with normal color vision. She mates with a color-blind male. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of their offspring? (Activity: Sex-Linked Genes)

All the offspring have normal color vision.

2 normal vision females : 1 normal vision male : 1 color-blind male

3 normal vision female : 1 color-blind male

1 normal vision female : 1 color-blind female : 1 normal male : 1 color-blind male

1 normal vision female : 1 color-blind male



13 . Color blindness is an X-linked recessive trait. A woman who is homozygous for normal color vision mates with a color-blind male. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of their offspring? (Activity: Sex-Linked Genes)

2 normal vision females : 1 normal vision male : 1 color-blind male

3 normal vision female : 1 color-blind male

All the offspring have normal color vision.

1 normal vision female : 1 color-blind female : 1 normal male : 1 color-blind male

1 normal vision female : 1 color-blind male



14 . Color blindness is an X-linked recessive trait. A color-blind woman mates with a male with normal color vision. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of their offspring? (Activity: Sex-Linked Genes)

1 normal vision female : 1 color-blind female : 1 normal male : 1 color-blind male

1 normal vision daughter : 1 color-blind son

2 normal vision females : 1 normal-vision male : 1 color-blind male

3 normal vision female : 1 color-blind male

All the offspring have normal color vision.



15 . Color blindness is an X-linked recessive trait. Under what conditions can an unaffected male have a color-blind daughter? (Activity: Sex-Linked Genes)

His mate is color-blind.

He can't.

He is heterozygous for color vision.

His father is color-blind.

His mother is color-blind.



16 . Hypophosphatemia (vitamin D-resistant rickets) is inherited as an X-linked dominant. An unaffected woman mates with a male with hypophosphatemia. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of their offspring? (Activity: Sex-Linked Genes)

1 normal female : 1 female with hypophosphatemia : 1 normal male : 1 male with hypophosphatemia

1 normal daughter : 1 son with hypophosphatemia

1 daughter with hypophosphatemia : 1 normal son

2 normal females : 1 normal male : 1 male with hypophosphatemia

3 normal female : 1 male with hypophosphatemia



17 . Hypophosphatemia (vitamin D-resistant rickets) is inherited as an X-linked dominant. A woman without hypophosphatemia and a man with hypophosphatemia have a daughter. The daughter mates with a male without hypophosphatemia. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of their offspring? (Activity: Sex-Linked Genes)

2 unaffected females : 1 unaffected male : 1 male with hypophosphatemia

1 unaffected female : 1 female with hypophosphatemia : 1 unaffected male : 1 male with hypophosphatemia

1 unaffected daughter : 1 son with hypophosphatemia

1 daughter with hypophosphatemia : 1 unaffected son

3 unaffected females : 1 male with hypophosphatemia



18 . Suppose that having three nostrils is a Y-linked character. A woman with two nostrils mates with a man with three nostrils. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of their offspring? (Activity: Sex-Linked Genes)

1 daughter with two nostrils : 1 son with three nostrils

1 daughter with two nostrils: 1 daughter with three nostrils: 1 son with two nostrils : 1 son with three nostrils

2 daughters with two nostrils: 1 son with two nostrils: 1 son with three nostrils

2 daughters with three nostrils: 1 son with two nostrils: 1 son with three nostrils

2 sons with two nostrils: 1 daughter with two nostrils: 1 daughter with three nostrils



19 . Humans are diploid and have 46 chromosomes (or two sets). How many sets of chromosomes are found in each human gamete? (Activity: Polyploid Plants)

1

2

3

4

5



20 . Humans are diploid and have 46 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are found in each human gamete? (Activity: Polyploid Plants)

12

23

36

45

92



21 . _____ is the process by which haploid gametes form a diploid zygote. (Activity: Polyploid Plants)

Embryogenesis

Meiosis

Gastrulation

Fertilization

Mitosis



22 . A particular diploid plant species has 48 chromosomes, or two sets. A mutation occurs and gametes with 48 chromosomes are produced. If self-fertilization occurs, the gametes will have _____ set(s) of chromosomes. (Activity: Polyploid Plants)

1

2

3

4

5



23 . Which of these terms applies to an organism with extra sets of chromosomes? (Activity: Polyploid Plants)

monosomy

haploid

trisomy

polyploid

diploid



24 . Mutant tetraploid plants _____. (Activity: Polyploid Plants)

are usually sickly

are able to interbreed with their parents

have an odd number of chromosomes

are unable to interbreed with a diploid plant

unable to self-fertilize



25 . Most polyploid plants arise as a result of _____. (Activity: Polyploid Plants)

self-fertilization

a mutation of gamete formation

meiosis

mitosis

hybridization




الاجوووبة::

________________________________________
1. Not Answered Based on the results of this cross, you determine that _____. (Activity: Linked Genes and Crossing Over)

The Correct Answer: round eyes are dominant to vertical eyes, and the absence of a tooth is dominant to the presence of a tooth

________________________________________
2. Not Answered The results of the following cross indicate that the _____. (Activity: Linked Genes and Crossing Over)


The Correct Answer: two genes assort independently

________________________________________
3. Not Answered An F1 individual can produce _____ different gametes when both eye and tooth genes are considered. (Activity: Linked Genes and Crossing Over)


The Correct Answer: 4

________________________________________
4. Not Answered Given these chromosomes, which of the choices represents the possible recombinant gametes? (Activity: Linked Genes and Crossing Over)


The Correct Answer:



________________________________________
5. Not Answered The results of a F1 testcross are: 250 bald head, four ears : 247 hairy head, six ears : 21 bald head, six ears : 19 hairy head, four ears. How many map units apart are the head and ear genes? (Activity: Linked Genes and Crossing Over)
The Correct Answer: 7.5

________________________________________
6. Not Answered Which of the individuals is homozygous recessive for both of the gene pairs? (Activity: Linked Genes and Crossing Over)


The Correct Answer: the female parent

________________________________________
7. Not Answered The results of the following cross indicates that the _____. (Activity: Linked Genes and Crossing Over)


The Correct Answer: two genes are linked

________________________________________
8. Not Answered The recombination frequency between gene A and gene B is 8.4%, the recombination frequency between gene A and gene C is 6.8%, and the recombination frequency between gene B and gene C is 15.2%. Which of these is the correct arrangement of these genes? (Activity: Linked Genes and Crossing Over)
The Correct Answer: CAB

________________________________________
9. Not Answered A color-blind woman mates with a male with normal color vision. Which of these results would indicate that color blindness is caused by an X-linked recessive allele? (Activity: Sex-Linked Genes)
The Correct Answer: All of the sons, and none of the daughters, are color-blind.

________________________________________
10. Not Answered Color blindness is an X-linked recessive trait. A color-blind man has a daughter with normal color vision. What is the genotype of the daughter? (Activity: Sex-Linked Genes)
The Correct Answer: XCXc

________________________________________
11. Not Answered Color blindness is an X-linked recessive trait. A color-blind man has a daughter with normal color vision. She mates with a male who has normal color vision. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of their offspring? (Activity: Sex-Linked Genes)
The Correct Answer: 2 normal vision females : 1 normal vision male : 1 color-blind male

________________________________________
12. Not Answered Color blindness is an X-linked recessive trait. A color-blind man has a daughter with normal color vision. She mates with a color-blind male. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of their offspring? (Activity: Sex-Linked Genes)
The Correct Answer: 1 normal vision female : 1 color-blind female : 1 normal male : 1 color-blind male

________________________________________
13. Not Answered Color blindness is an X-linked recessive trait. A woman who is homozygous for normal color vision mates with a color-blind male. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of their offspring? (Activity: Sex-Linked Genes)
The Correct Answer: All the offspring have normal color vision.

________________________________________
14. Not Answered Color blindness is an X-linked recessive trait. A color-blind woman mates with a male with normal color vision. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of their offspring? (Activity: Sex-Linked Genes)
The Correct Answer: 1 normal vision daughter : 1 color-blind son

________________________________________
15. Not Answered Color blindness is an X-linked recessive trait. Under what conditions can an unaffected male have a color-blind daughter? (Activity: Sex-Linked Genes)
The Correct Answer: He can't.

________________________________________
16. Not Answered Hypophosphatemia (vitamin D-resistant rickets) is inherited as an X-linked dominant. An unaffected woman mates with a male with hypophosphatemia. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of their offspring? (Activity: Sex-Linked Genes)
The Correct Answer: 1 daughter with hypophosphatemia : 1 normal son

________________________________________
17. Not Answered Hypophosphatemia (vitamin D-resistant rickets) is inherited as an X-linked dominant. A woman without hypophosphatemia and a man with hypophosphatemia have a daughter. The daughter mates with a male without hypophosphatemia. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of their offspring? (Activity: Sex-Linked Genes)
The Correct Answer: 1 unaffected female : 1 female with hypophosphatemia : 1 unaffected male : 1 male with hypophosphatemia

________________________________________
18. Not Answered Suppose that having three nostrils is a Y-linked character. A woman with two nostrils mates with a man with three nostrils. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of their offspring? (Activity: Sex-Linked Genes)
The Correct Answer: 1 daughter with two nostrils : 1 son with three nostrils

________________________________________
19. Not Answered Humans are diploid and have 46 chromosomes (or two sets). How many sets of chromosomes are found in each human gamete? (Activity: Polyploid Plants)
The Correct Answer: 1

________________________________________
20. Not Answered Humans are diploid and have 46 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are found in each human gamete? (Activity: Polyploid Plants)
The Correct Answer: 23

________________________________________
21. Not Answered _____ is the process by which haploid gametes form a diploid zygote. (Activity: Polyploid Plants)
The Correct Answer: Fertilization

________________________________________
22. Not Answered A particular diploid plant species has 48 chromosomes, or two sets. A mutation occurs and gametes with 48 chromosomes are produced. If self-fertilization occurs, the gametes will have _____ set(s) of chromosomes. (Activity: Polyploid Plants)
The Correct Answer: 4

________________________________________
23. Not Answered Which of these terms applies to an organism with extra sets of chromosomes? (Activity: Polyploid Plants)
The Correct Answer: polyploid

________________________________________
24. Not Answered Mutant tetraploid plants _____. (Activity: Polyploid Plants)
The Correct Answer: are unable to interbreed with a diploid plant

________________________________________
25. Not Answered Most polyploid plants arise as a result of _____. (Activity: Polyploid Plants)
The Correct Answer: hybridization



باقي شابتر 15::


Chapter 15: The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance





Chapter Quiz




1 . The chromosome theory of inheritance states that _____. (Concept 15.1 ) [Hint]

genes occupy specific positions on chromosomes

homologous chromosomes segregate from each other during meiosis

chromosomes assort independently during meiosis

The first and second answers are correct.

The first, second, and third answers are correct.



2 . Drosophila is a useful organism for genetic studies for all of the following reasons except _____. (Concept 15.1 ) [Hint]

They have a long generation time.

A single mating can produce many offspring.

They have a small number of chromosomes.

Drosophila chromosomes can be easily distinguishable under a light microscope.

All of the above.



3 . Wild type refers to _____. (Concept 15.1 ) [Hint]

the most common phenotype in the natural population

the most extreme mutant phenotype observed in an experiment

any mutant genotype

a kind of chromosomal deletion

extranuclear genes



4 . Which of the following statements about Thomas Hunt Morgan's experiments with white-eyed mutant flies is incorrect? (Concept 15.1 ) [Hint]

In the parental cross, a white-eyed male was crossed with a red-eyed female. The F1 progeny all had red eyes.

The F1 flies were crossed with each other, and the F2 progeny included red-eyed and white-eyed flies in a 3:1 ratio.

Among the F2 progeny, half of the males had white eyes.

Among the F2 progeny, half of the females had white eyes.

All of the above are incorrect.



5 . If two genes are linked, _____. (Concept 15.2 ) [Hint]

they are on different chromosomes

they assort independently

they code for the same protein

they are on the same chromosome

they are on sex chromosomes



6 . In a particular species of mammal, black hair (B) is dominant to green hair (b), and red eyes (R) are dominant to white eyes (r). When a BbRr individual is mated with a bbrr individual, offspring are produced in a ratio of 5 black hair and red eyes:5 green hair and white eyes:1 black hair and white eyes:1 green hair and red eyes. Which of these explanations accounts for this ratio? (Concept 15.2 ) [Hint]

Green-haired individuals have a higher prenatal mortality than black-haired individuals.

The genes for hair color and the genes for eye color are carried on different chromosomes.

The expected results did not take genetic recombination into account.

The genes for both of these traits are carried on the autosomes.

The genes for hair color and eye color are linked.



7 . A gray-bodied, vestigial-winged fly is crossed with a black-bodied, normal-winged fly. The F1 progeny is testcrossed. Among the resulting offspring, _____ is a parental type, and _____ is a recombinant type. (Concept 15.2 ) [Hint]

gray-bodied, normal-winged ... black-bodied, vestigial-winged

gray-bodied, vestigial-winged ... black-bodied, normal-winged

gray-bodied, normal-winged ... black-bodied, normal-winged

black-bodied, normal-winged ... black-bodied, vestigial-winged

black-bodied, normal-winged ... black-bodied, normal-winged



8 . You perform a testcross using F1 dihybrid flies. If, in the resulting offspring, the percentages of parental and recombinant offspring are about the same, this would indicate that the two genes are _____. (Concept 15.2 ) [Hint]

linked

unlinked

similar in DNA sequence

mutated

imprinted



9 . The recombination frequency between two gene loci is _____. (Concept 15.2 ) [Hint]

dependent on the sex of the parent

greater as the distance between the two loci increases

greater as the distance between the two loci decreases

dependent on whether dominant or recessive alleles are carried at the two loci

equal to the size of the chromosome



10 . Four genes (A, B, C, and D) are on the same chromosome. The recombination frequencies are as follows: A-B: 19%; B-C: 14%; A-C: 5%; B-D: 2%; A-D: 21%; C-D: 16%. Based on this information, which sequence of genes is correct? (Concept 15.2 ) [Hint]

ABCD

ABDC

ACBD

ACDB

ADBC



11 . In question 6, the observed distribution of offspring was as follows: black-red 1,070; black-white 177; green-red 180; green-white 1,072. Based on these data, what is the recombination frequency? (Concept 15.2 ) [Hint]

86%

7%

approximately 17%

approximately 14%

30%



12 . A linkage map _____. (Concept 15.2 ) [Hint]

orders genes on a chromosome based on recombination frequencies

can be constructed only for sex chromosomes

orders genes on a chromosome based on their location with respect to a stained band

shows the ordering and exact spacing of genes on a chromosome

predicts the probability that you will have a male or female child



13 . Because the frequency of crossing over is not uniform along the length of a chromosome, _____. (Concept 15.2 ) [Hint]

the recombination frequency between two genes cannot be used to calculate the number of map units separating them

map units do not necessarily correlate to physical distances along the chromosome

pairs of homologous chromosomes contain small but significant differences in gene order

the centimorgan is an unreliable unit of measurement, and is rarely used today

recombination frequency cannot be used to determine the number of centimorgans separating two genes



14 . Linked genes can be separated by anywhere from _____ to _____ centimorgans. (Concept 15.2 ) [Hint]

0 ... 100

50 ... 100

0 ... 25

0 ... 50

25 ... 50



15 . What is the probability that a male will inherit an X-linked recessive allele from his father? (Concept 15.3 ) [Hint]

0%

25%

50%

75%

100%



16 . In an X-linked, or sex-linked, trait, it is the contribution of _____ that determines whether a son will display the trait. (Concept 15.3 ) [Hint]

the mother

the father

the paternal grandmother

the paternal grandfather

none of the above



17 . If a mother is heterozygous for a recessive sex-linked trait and her husband has the dominant allele, which one of the following is true about the probabilities for their children? (Concept 15.3 ) [Hint]

All of their sons will have the recessive trait.

Half of their sons will have the recessive trait.

None of their sons will have the recessive trait.

All of their daughters will be heterozygous.

None of the above.



18 . In werewolves, pointy ears (P) is dominant over round ears (p). The gene is on the X chromosome. (Sex determination in werewolves is the same as for "other" humans.) A certain female werewolf has pointy ears even though her father had round ears. What percentage of her sons will have round ears if she marries a werewolf with round ears? (Concept 15.3 ) [Hint]

0%

25%

50%

75%

100%



19 . A woman is red-green color-blind. What can we conclude, if anything, about her father? (Concept 15.3 ) [Hint]

We have too little information to tell.

There is a 50% probability that he has normal vision.

He is red-green color-blind.

He has two Y chromosomes.

None of the above.



20 . A woman is a carrier for red-green color blindness, a sex-linked trait. Her husband is normal (not color-blind) for this trait. What are the chances that their newborn daughter will be red-green color-blind? (Concept 15.3 ) [Hint]

0%

25%

50%

75%

100%



21 . Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by a sex-linked recessive allele. Its victims are almost invariably boys, who usually die before the age of 20. Why is this disorder almost never seen in girls? (Concept 15.3 ) [Hint]

Sex-linked traits are never seen in girls.

The allele is carried on the Y chromosome.

Nondisjunction occurs in males but not in females.

To express an X-linked recessive allele, a female must have two copies of the allele.

A sex-linked allele cannot be passed from mother to daughter.



22 . Hemophilia is a sex-linked disorder. The daughter of a father with hemophilia and a carrier mother has a _____ probability of having hemophilia. (Concept 15.3 ) [Hint]

100%

25%

50%

0%

33%



23 . Queen Victoria was a carrier of a recessive sex-linked allele for hemophilia. Which one of the following possibilities could explain the presence of the hemophilia allele in her genotype? (Concept 15.3 ) [Hint]

Either her mother was a carrier or her father had hemophilia.

Either her mother was homozygous dominant or her father had hemophilia.

Both her mother and her father had hemophilia.

Either her mother was a carrier or her father had a dominant allele.

None of the above.



24 . In a certain fish, fin rays (supporting structures for the fins) can be either bony or soft in adult fish. Sex linkage in a fish is similar to that in humans. What evidence would most strongly support the idea that the ray locus is on the X chromosome? (Concept 15.3 ) [Hint]

Bony ray males can pass on bony rays only to their male offspring.

Matings of soft ray males and bony ray females give different results from the matings of bony ray males and soft ray females.

Females with either bony or soft rays can reproduce, but males with soft rays cannot transfer sperm to the female.

Females with bony rays cannot pass bony rays to female offspring even if they are mating with a bony ray male.

All of the above.



25 . A genetic defect in humans results in the absence of sweat glands in the skin. Some men have this defect all over their bodies, but in women it is usually expressed in a peculiar way: A woman with this defect typically has small patches of skin with sweat glands and other patches without sweat glands. In women, the pattern of sweat-gland distribution can best be explained by _____. (Concept 15.3 ) [Hint]

a mutation

X chromosome inactivation

RNA splicing

an operon

a homeobox



26 . With a microscope, you examine some somatic cells from a woman and notice that each nucleus has two Barr bodies. What can you infer about the sex chromosomes in this individual? (Concept 15.3 ) [Hint]

She is XX.

She is XXX.

She is XXXX.

She is XXY, but the Y chromosome lacks the SRY gene.

None of the above.



27 . During meiosis, homologous chromosomes sometimes "stick together" and do not separate properly. This phenomenon is known as _____. (Concept 15.4 ) [Hint]

cellular sterility

meiotic failure

gametic infertility

nondisjunction

sticky chiasmata



28 . In Klinefelter syndrome, individuals are phenotypically male, but they are tall and thin, have a female-like development of the hips and breasts, and have testes that remain in the abdomen instead of descending into the scrotum. The cells of Klinefelter individuals have two X chromosomes and one Y (they are XXY instead of XY). That is, Klinefelter syndrome is a(n) _____. (Concept 15.4 ) [Hint]

translocation

polyploidy

aneuploidy

duplication

monosomy



29 . Cells that have more than two complete sets of chromosomes are termed _____. (Concept 15.4 ) [Hint]

aneuploid

diploid

polyploid

nanoploid

trisomy



30 . _____ is usually less severe than _____, and _____ species have been observed in plants, fish, amphibians, and even mammals. (Concept 15.5 ) [Hint]

Polyploidy ... aneuploidy ... polyploid

Aneuploidy ... polyploidy ... aneuploid

Monosomy ... trisomy ... monosomic

Trisomy ... monosomy ... trisomic

Nondisjunction ... disjunction ... nondisjunctional



31 . Gene A is normally found on chromosome number 15 in humans. If amniocentesis reveals fetal cells containing gene A on chromosome 17, but not on 15, the best explanation would be that _____. (Concept 15.4 ) [Hint]

crossing over occurred during synapsis of meiosis I in one parent's gametes

base substitution occurred either during gametogenesis or in the mitotic divisions following fertilization

an inversion of gene A occurred on chromosome 15

translocation occurred

at least one parent probably had a genetic syndrome



32 . The exchange of segments between nonhomologous chromosomes is called _____. (Concept 15.4 ) [Hint]

inversion

translocation

transduction

transformation

duplication



33 . Why are individuals with an extra chromosome 21, which causes Down syndrome, more numerous than individuals with an extra chromosome 3 or chromosome 16? (Concept 15.4 ) [Hint]

There are probably more genes on chromosome 21 than on the others.

Chromosome 21 is a sex chromosome, and 3 and 16 are not.

Down syndrome is not more common, just more serious.

Extra copies of the other chromosomes are probably fatal to the developing embryo.

Nondisjunction of chromosomes 3 and 16 probably occurs much less frequently.



34 . When a person has Down syndrome, he or she has an extra chromosome 21. Therefore, Down syndrome is a kind of _____ and results from _____. (Concept 15.4 ) [Hint]

aneuploidy ... nondisjunction of chromosome 21 during meiosis I

polyploidy ... occurrence of meiosis without cytokinesis

genomic imprint ... excessive methylation of either the paternal or maternal chromosome 21

replication error ... an extra cycle of DNA synthesis during the S phase

none of the above



35 . A person with two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome would appear to be _____. (Concept 15.4 ) [Hint]

male

female

both male and female

neither male nor female

any of the above, depending on the number of other chromosomes



36 . Which one of the following is the only known viable human monosomy? (Concept 15.4 ) [Hint]

XYY

XO

YO

XY

XXY



37 . Which type of chromosomal alteration is responsible for the disorder cri du chat? (Concept 15.4 ) [Hint]

inversion

duplication

genetic imprinting

deletion

translocation



38 . Which of the following statements about genomic imprinting is incorrect? (Concept 15.5 ) [Hint]

It silences the expression of certain genes in females, but not in males.

It affects genes on both the sex chromosomes and the autosomes.

It affects the expression of alleles depending on whether they are inherited from the mother or the father.

It involves reversible chemical modifications to the DNA such as methylation.

None of the above.



39 . Both chloroplasts and mitochondria _____. (Concept 15.5 ) [Hint]

are found within the nucleus

have linear DNA

carry extranuclear genes

are inherited from both parents

display a Mendelian pattern of inheritance



40 . It is proposed that a certain disorder affecting the inner ear is caused by mitochondrial DNA. Which of the following observations would be the most decisive evidence against this idea? (Concept 15.5 ) [Hint]

Fathers with the disorder pass it on to all their children, but mothers with the disorder do not pass it along.

Females and males have the disorder in equal numbers.

Mothers pass the disorder on to their offspring, but fathers do not.

The precise cause of the disorder is found to involve the nervous system.

All of the above would be evidence against mitochondrial inheritance of this condition




الاجووبة::
________________________________________
1. Not Answered The chromosome theory of inheritance states that _____. (Concept 15.1 )
The Correct Answer: The first, second, and third answers are correct.

________________________________________
2. Not Answered Drosophila is a useful organism for genetic studies for all of the following reasons except _____. (Concept 15.1 )
The Correct Answer: They have a long generation time.

________________________________________
3. Not Answered Wild type refers to _____. (Concept 15.1 )
The Correct Answer: the most common phenotype in the natural population

________________________________________
4. Not Answered Which of the following statements about Thomas Hunt Morgan's experiments with white-eyed mutant flies is incorrect? (Concept 15.1 )
The Correct Answer: Among the F2 progeny, half of the females had white eyes.

________________________________________
5. Not Answered If two genes are linked, _____. (Concept 15.2 )
The Correct Answer: they are on the same chromosome

________________________________________
6. Not Answered In a particular species of mammal, black hair (B) is dominant to green hair (b), and red eyes (R) are dominant to white eyes (r). When a BbRr individual is mated with a bbrr individual, offspring are produced in a ratio of 5 black hair and red eyes:5 green hair and white eyes:1 black hair and white eyes:1 green hair and red eyes. Which of these explanations accounts for this ratio? (Concept 15.2 )
The Correct Answer: The genes for hair color and eye color are linked.

________________________________________
7. Not Answered A gray-bodied, vestigial-winged fly is crossed with a black-bodied, normal-winged fly. The F1 progeny is testcrossed. Among the resulting offspring, _____ is a parental type, and _____ is a recombinant type. (Concept 15.2 )
The Correct Answer: black-bodied, normal-winged ... black-bodied, vestigial-winged

________________________________________
8. Not Answered You perform a testcross using F1 dihybrid flies. If, in the resulting offspring, the percentages of parental and recombinant offspring are about the same, this would indicate that the two genes are _____. (Concept 15.2 )
The Correct Answer: unlinked

________________________________________
9. Not Answered The recombination frequency between two gene loci is _____. (Concept 15.2 )
The Correct Answer: greater as the distance between the two loci increases

________________________________________
10. Not Answered Four genes (A, B, C, and D) are on the same chromosome. The recombination frequencies are as follows: A-B: 19%; B-C: 14%; A-C: 5%; B-D: 2%; A-D: 21%; C-D: 16%. Based on this information, which sequence of genes is correct? (Concept 15.2 )
The Correct Answer: ACBD

________________________________________
11. Not Answered In question 6, the observed distribution of offspring was as follows: black-red 1,070; black-white 177; green-red 180; green-white 1,072. Based on these data, what is the recombination frequency? (Concept 15.2 )
The Correct Answer: approximately 14%

________________________________________
12. Not Answered A linkage map _____. (Concept 15.2 )
The Correct Answer: orders genes on a chromosome based on recombination frequencies

________________________________________
13. Not Answered Because the frequency of crossing over is not uniform along the length of a chromosome, _____. (Concept 15.2 )
The Correct Answer: map units do not necessarily correlate to physical distances along the chromosome

________________________________________
14. Not Answered Linked genes can be separated by anywhere from _____ to _____ centimorgans. (Concept 15.2 )
The Correct Answer: 0 ... 50

________________________________________
15. Not Answered What is the probability that a male will inherit an X-linked recessive allele from his father? (Concept 15.3 )
The Correct Answer: 0%

________________________________________
16. Not Answered In an X-linked, or sex-linked, trait, it is the contribution of _____ that determines whether a son will display the trait. (Concept 15.3 )
The Correct Answer: the mother

________________________________________
17. Not Answered If a mother is heterozygous for a recessive sex-linked trait and her husband has the dominant allele, which one of the following is true about the probabilities for their children? (Concept 15.3 )
The Correct Answer: Half of their sons will have the recessive trait.

________________________________________
18. Not Answered In werewolves, pointy ears (P) is dominant over round ears (p). The gene is on the X chromosome. (Sex determination in werewolves is the same as for "other" humans.) A certain female werewolf has pointy ears even though her father had round ears. What percentage of her sons will have round ears if she marries a werewolf with round ears? (Concept 15.3 )
The Correct Answer: 50%

________________________________________
19. Not Answered A woman is red-green color-blind. What can we conclude, if anything, about her father? (Concept 15.3 )
The Correct Answer: He is red-green color-blind.

________________________________________
20. Not Answered A woman is a carrier for red-green color blindness, a sex-linked trait. Her husband is normal (not color-blind) for this trait. What are the chances that their newborn daughter will be red-green color-blind? (Concept 15.3 )
The Correct Answer: 0%

________________________________________
21. Not Answered Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by a sex-linked recessive allele. Its victims are almost invariably boys, who usually die before the age of 20. Why is this disorder almost never seen in girls? (Concept 15.3 )
The Correct Answer: To express an X-linked recessive allele, a female must have two copies of the allele.

________________________________________
22. Not Answered Hemophilia is a sex-linked disorder. The daughter of a father with hemophilia and a carrier mother has a _____ probability of having hemophilia. (Concept 15.3 )
The Correct Answer: 50%

________________________________________
23. Not Answered Queen Victoria was a carrier of a recessive sex-linked allele for hemophilia. Which one of the following possibilities could explain the presence of the hemophilia allele in her genotype? (Concept 15.3 )
The Correct Answer: Either her mother was a carrier or her father had hemophilia.

________________________________________
24. Not Answered In a certain fish, fin rays (supporting structures for the fins) can be either bony or soft in adult fish. Sex linkage in a fish is similar to that in humans. What evidence would most strongly support the idea that the ray locus is on the X chromosome? (Concept 15.3 )
The Correct Answer: Matings of soft ray males and bony ray females give different results from the matings of bony ray males and soft ray females.

________________________________________
25. Not Answered A genetic defect in humans results in the absence of sweat glands in the skin. Some men have this defect all over their bodies, but in women it is usually expressed in a peculiar way: A woman with this defect typically has small patches of skin with sweat glands and other patches without sweat glands. In women, the pattern of sweat-gland distribution can best be explained by _____. (Concept 15.3 )
The Correct Answer: X chromosome inactivation

________________________________________
26. Not Answered With a microscope, you examine some somatic cells from a woman and notice that each nucleus has two Barr bodies. What can you infer about the sex chromosomes in this individual? (Concept 15.3 )
The Correct Answer: She is XXX.

________________________________________
27. Not Answered During meiosis, homologous chromosomes sometimes "stick together" and do not separate properly. This phenomenon is known as _____. (Concept 15.4 )
The Correct Answer: nondisjunction

________________________________________
28. Not Answered In Klinefelter syndrome, individuals are phenotypically male, but they are tall and thin, have a female-like development of the hips and breasts, and have testes that remain in the abdomen instead of descending into the scrotum. The cells of Klinefelter individuals have two X chromosomes and one Y (they are XXY instead of XY). That is, Klinefelter syndrome is a(n) _____. (Concept 15.4 )
The Correct Answer: aneuploidy

________________________________________
29. Not Answered Cells that have more than two complete sets of chromosomes are termed _____. (Concept 15.4 )
The Correct Answer: polyploid

________________________________________
30. Not Answered _____ is usually less severe than _____, and _____ species have been observed in plants, fish, amphibians, and even mammals. (Concept 15.5 )
The Correct Answer: Polyploidy ... aneuploidy ... polyploid

________________________________________
31. Not Answered Gene A is normally found on chromosome number 15 in humans. If amniocentesis reveals fetal cells containing gene A on chromosome 17, but not on 15, the best explanation would be that _____. (Concept 15.4 )
The Correct Answer: translocation occurred

________________________________________
32. Not Answered The exchange of segments between nonhomologous chromosomes is called _____. (Concept 15.4 )
The Correct Answer: translocation

________________________________________
33. Not Answered Why are individuals with an extra chromosome 21, which causes Down syndrome, more numerous than individuals with an extra chromosome 3 or chromosome 16? (Concept 15.4 )
The Correct Answer: Extra copies of the other chromosomes are probably fatal to the developing embryo.

________________________________________
34. Not Answered When a person has Down syndrome, he or she has an extra chromosome 21. Therefore, Down syndrome is a kind of _____ and results from _____. (Concept 15.4 )
The Correct Answer: aneuploidy ... nondisjunction of chromosome 21 during meiosis I

________________________________________
35. Not Answered A person with two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome would appear to be _____. (Concept 15.4 )
The Correct Answer: male

________________________________________
36. Not Answered Which one of the following is the only known viable human monosomy? (Concept 15.4 )
The Correct Answer: XO

________________________________________
37. Not Answered Which type of chromosomal alteration is responsible for the disorder cri du chat? (Concept 15.4 )
The Correct Answer: deletion

________________________________________
38. Not Answered Which of the following statements about genomic imprinting is incorrect? (Concept 15.5 )
The Correct Answer: It silences the expression of certain genes in females, but not in males.

________________________________________
39. Not Answered Both chloroplasts and mitochondria _____. (Concept 15.5 )
The Correct Answer: carry extranuclear genes

________________________________________
40. Not Answered It is proposed that a certain disorder affecting the inner ear is caused by mitochondrial DNA. Which of the following observations would be the most decisive evidence against this idea? (Concept 15.5 )
The Correct Answer: Fathers with the disorder pass it on to all their children, but mothers with the disorder do not pass it along.

اخر شابتر
45::
Chapter 45: Hormones and the Endocrine System





Activities Quiz




1 . Which of these is the second of the three stages of cell signaling? (Activity: Overview of Cell Signaling)

gene activation

reception

binding of a neurotransmitter to a plasma membrane receptor

transduction

cell response



2 . Receptors for nonsteroid hormones are located in _____. (Activity: Peptide Hormone Action)

the extracellular fluid

the cytoplasm

the nucleus

the cytosol

association with a cell's plasma membrane



3 . Which of these is a nonsteroid hormone? (Activity: Peptide Hormone Action)

estrogen

testosterone

both estrogen and testosterone

oxytocin

epinephrine and oxytocin



4 . How do nonsteroid hormones differ from steroid hormones? (Activity: Peptide Hormone Action)

nonsteroid hormones bind to a cell's DNA; steroid hormones do not bind to a cell's DNA

nonsteroid hormones act via signal transduction pathways; steroid hormones do not act via signal transduction pathways

the action of nonsteroid hormones never affects gene expression; the action of steroid hormones always affects gene expression

nonsteroid hormones bind to cytoplasmic receptors; steroid hormones bind to plasma membrane receptors

nonsteroid hormones are fat-soluble; steroid hormones are water-soluble



5 . Which of these extracellular signal molecules could diffuse through a plasma membrane and bind to an intracellular receptor? (Activity: Steroid Hormone Action)

estrogen

epinephrine

cellulose

oxytocin

starch



6 . The primary reason steroid hormones usually act slowly is that _____. (Activity: Steroid Hormone Action)

they are produced at very low concentrations

acting via a signal transduction pathway makes for slower responses than does directly interacting with a cell's DNA

they are too large to enter a cell and therefore must first bind to a plasma membrane receptor before having an effect on a cell

target cells tend to ignore steroid hormones in favor of nonsteroid hormones

they turn genes on or off and it takes time for gene products to build up or become depleted



7 . Steroid hormone-receptor complexes act in _____. (Activity: Steroid Hormone Action)

the nucleus

lysosomes

vesicles

the cytoplasm

the plasma membrane



8 . Which of these glands secretes releasing hormones? (Activity: Human Endocrine Glands and Hormones)

hypothalamus

adrenal cortex

thymus

ovaries

testes



9 . Which of these hormones are responsible for the "fight or flight" response to danger? (Activity: Human Endocrine Glands and Hormones)

insulin and glucagon

thyroxine and calcitonin

androgens and estrogens

antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin

epinephrine and norepinephrine



10 . Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) triggers the release of _____ in response to stress. (Activity: Human Endocrine Glands and Hormones)

melatonin

insulin

glucocorticoids

thymosin

parathyroid hormone



11 . _____ are the main male hormones. (Activity: Human Endocrine Glands and Hormones)

Progesterones

Mineralocorticoids

Androgens

Luteinizing hormones

Estrogens



12 . What hormone promotes water retention by the kidneys? (Activity: Human Endocrine Glands and Hormones)

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

prolactin

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

melatonin

glucagon



13 . Which hormone opposes the action of parathyroid hormone? (Activity: Human Endocrine Glands and Hormones)

calcitonin

insulin

thyroxine

thymosin

glucagon



14 . Which hormone stimulates hormone production by the ovaries and testes? (Activity: Human Endocrine Glands and Hormones)

progesterone

testosterone

glucocorticoids

luteinizing hormone (LH)

estrogens



15 . Which hormone stimulates milk production? (Activity: Human Endocrine Glands and Hormones)

parathyroid hormone

mineralocorticoids

prolactin

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

thymosin




الاجووبة::
________________________________________
1. Not Answered Which of these is the second of the three stages of cell signaling? (Activity: Overview of Cell Signaling)
The Correct Answer: transduction

________________________________________
2. Not Answered Receptors for nonsteroid hormones are located in _____. (Activity: Peptide Hormone Action)
The Correct Answer: association with a cell's plasma membrane

________________________________________
3. Not Answered Which of these is a nonsteroid hormone? (Activity: Peptide Hormone Action)
The Correct Answer: epinephrine and oxytocin

________________________________________
4. Not Answered How do nonsteroid hormones differ from steroid hormones? (Activity: Peptide Hormone Action)
The Correct Answer: nonsteroid hormones act via signal transduction pathways; steroid hormones do not act via signal transduction pathways

________________________________________
5. Not Answered Which of these extracellular signal molecules could diffuse through a plasma membrane and bind to an intracellular receptor? (Activity: Steroid Hormone Action)
The Correct Answer: estrogen

________________________________________
6. Not Answered The primary reason steroid hormones usually act slowly is that _____. (Activity: Steroid Hormone Action)
The Correct Answer: they turn genes on or off and it takes time for gene products to build up or become depleted

________________________________________
7. Not Answered Steroid hormone-receptor complexes act in _____. (Activity: Steroid Hormone Action)
The Correct Answer: the nucleus

________________________________________
8. Not Answered Which of these glands secretes releasing hormones? (Activity: Human Endocrine Glands and Hormones)
The Correct Answer: hypothalamus

________________________________________
9. Not Answered Which of these hormones are responsible for the "fight or flight" response to danger? (Activity: Human Endocrine Glands and Hormones)
The Correct Answer: epinephrine and norepinephrine

________________________________________
10. Not Answered Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) triggers the release of _____ in response to stress. (Activity: Human Endocrine Glands and Hormones)
The Correct Answer: glucocorticoids

________________________________________
11. Not Answered _____ are the main male hormones. (Activity: Human Endocrine Glands and Hormones)
The Correct Answer: Androgens

________________________________________
12. Not Answered What hormone promotes water retention by the kidneys? (Activity: Human Endocrine Glands and Hormones)
The Correct Answer: antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

________________________________________
13. Not Answered Which hormone opposes the action of parathyroid hormone? (Activity: Human Endocrine Glands and Hormones)
The Correct Answer: calcitonin

________________________________________
14. Not Answered Which hormone stimulates hormone production by the ovaries and testes? (Activity: Human Endocrine Glands and Hormones)
The Correct Answer: luteinizing hormone (LH)

________________________________________
15. Not Answered Which hormone stimulates milk production? (Activity: Human Endocrine Glands and Hormones)
The Correct Answer: prolactin



باقي شابتر 45::
Chapter 45: Hormones and the Endocrine System





Chapter Quiz




1 . Which is not an accurate statement regarding the difference between steroid and nonsteroid hormones? (Concept 45.2 ) [Hint]

Steroid hormones are made from lipids; nonsteroid hormones are made from amino acids.

Steroid hormones can pass through cell membranes; most nonsteroid hormones cannot.

Steroid hormones attach to receptors in the cytoplasm; nonsteroid hormones attach to membrane-bound receptors.

Steroid hormones activate genes; nonsteroid hormones do not directly activate genes.

Steroid hormones are produced by endocrine glands; nonsteroid hormones are produced by nervous tissue.



2 . Neurosecretory cells can be found in the _____. (Concept 45.1 ) [Hint]

hypothalamus

anterior pituitary

hypothalamus and anterior pituitary

anterior and posterior pituitary

adrenal glands



3 . Which example below is a true statement about the differences between hormones and neurotransmitters? (Concept 45.1 ) [Hint]

Neurotransmitters produce slower responses than hormones.

Neurotransmitters are released from ductless glands into the blood.

Some endocrine glands release neurotransmitters, but no nervous tissue releases hormones.

Neurotransmitters convey messages between nerve cells.

All of the above are true.



4 . Since most chemical signals are unable to pass through the plasma membrane, the cellular action they initiate results from _____. (Concept 45.2 ) [Hint]

ligand binding

the activation of a signal transduction pathway

direct stimulation of the cell's DNA

the enzymatic behavior of the signal molecule

binding to intracellular receptors



5 . What is the role of a second messenger in hormone action? (Concept 45.2 ) [Hint]

It signals a cell to secrete a hormone.

It informs a gland as to whether its hormones are having an effect.

It relays a hormone's message inside a target cell.

It stops hormone action when it is no longer needed.

All of the above are true.



6 . What did experiments with melanocyte-stimulating hormone, a water-soluble hormone, in the skin cells of frogs reveal about hormone action? (Concept 45.2 ) [Hint]

They revealed the role of cell-surface receptors in signal transduction pathways.

They identified intracellular proteins that function as receptors.

Hormones can only cause a reaction within target cells.

Certain hormones can cause a change in gene expression.

Hormone receptors are trapped in the cytoplasm in the absence of hormone.



7 . Which one of the following hormones or types of hormones is thought to act at the cellular level by inducing a change in gene expression? (Concept 45.2 ) [Hint]

protein hormones

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

sex hormones

catecholamines

antidiuretic hormone



8 . Which example below is a role of nitric oxide (NO), a local regulator? (Concept 45.2 ) [Hint]

When oxygen levels fall, nitric oxide activates an enzyme that relaxes smooth muscle. This dilates blood vessels and improves blood flow.

When secreted by certain white blood cells, NO kills some bacteria and cancer cells.

NO increases the blood flow into the penis, producing an erection.

In the nervous system, NO serves as a neurotransmitter.

All of the above are correct.



9 . Ibuprofen is known for its pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties because it inhibits the synthesis of _____. (Concept 45.2 ) [Hint]

glucocorticoids

nitric oxide

progestins

prostaglandins

cytokines



10 . Which one of the following endocrine organs does not actually manufacture hormones but, rather, stores hormones produced elsewhere? (Concept 45.3 ) [Hint]

thyroid

adrenal cortex

adrenal medulla

anterior pituitary

posterior pituitary



11 . As a young girl, Maria suffered a head injury that damaged her pituitary. An injury to the pituitary is particularly serious because of all the functions controlled by this gland. As Maria got older, she and her doctors found that all of the following except her _____ were affected. (Concept 45.3 ) [Hint]

metabolic rate

growth

menstrual cycle

water regulation

blood sugar level



12 . A doctor might give an expectant mother _____ to stimulate uterine contractions and induce labor. (Concept 45.3 ) [Hint]

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

thyroxine

oxytocin

insulin

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)



13 . The regulation of water volume in the blood involves which hormone? (Concept 45.3 ) [Hint]

oxytocin

insulin

FSH

ADH

glucagon



14 . How does the hypothalamus control the secretion of growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary? (Concept 45.3 ) [Hint]

The hypothalamus produces a releasing hormone that stimulates the pituitary to secrete GH.

The hypothalamus sends a hormone to the target cells that makes them receptive to GH.

Feedback from the target cells is sent to the posterior pituitary, which signals the hypothalamus to stimulate the anterior pituitary.

The hypothalamus stimulates an action potential in the posterior pituitary, which then sends a releasing hormone to the anterior pituitary.

None of the above statements is true.



15 . Which of the following is a hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary? (Concept 45.3 ) [Hint]

insulin

oxytocin

ACTH

thyroxine

PTH



16 . FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone) are trophic hormones that are also known as _____. (Concept 45.3 ) [Hint]

gonadotropins

prostaglandins

neurohormones

cytokines

androgens



17 . Which of the following hormones specifically act(s) to trigger secretion of hormones by another endocrine gland? (Concept 45.3 ) [Hint]

thyroid hormones (T3 and T4)

progesterone

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

melatonin



18 . Which is a correct statement about prolactin? (Concept 45.3 ) [Hint]

It is produced by the posterior pituitary in all vertebrates.

It regulates the balance between salt and water in saltwater fish such as the barracuda.

It regulates larval development in beetles and grasshoppers.

It controls fat metabolism and reproduction in birds.

It stimulates the mammary glands to produce milk in birds.



19 . The mammary glands of a pregnant female will begin to produce milk in response to changes in the level of which of the following hormones? (Concept 45.3 ) [Hint]

prolactin

progesterone

estrogen

relaxin

oxytocin



20 . The major tropic action of growth hormone is to signal the _____ to release _____. (Concept 45.2 ) [Hint]

thyroid .... T3 and T4

pancreas .... glucagon

liver .... insulin-like growth factors

hypothalamus .... thyroid-releasing hormone

adrenal medulla .... epinephrine



21 . How is the level of thyroxine in the blood regulated? (Concept 45.4 ) [Hint]

Thyroxine stimulates the pituitary to secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).

TSH inhibits the secretion of thyroxine from the thyroid gland.

TSH-releasing hormone (TRH) inhibits the secretion of thyroxine by the thyroid gland.

Thyroxine stimulates the hypothalamus to secrete TRH.

High levels of T3 and T4 inhibit the secretion of TRH and TSH.



22 . Which disorder is correctly matched with its cause? (Concept 45.3 ) [Hint]

pituitary dwarfism ... hyposecretion of growth hormone

infant cretinism ... hypersecretion of thyroxine

low blood calcium ... hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH)

diabetes mellitus ... hypersecretion of insulin

acromegaly ... hyposecretion of growth hormone



23 . Which is a correct statement about the thyroid gland? (Concept 45.4 ) [Hint]

It produces the lipid class of hormones.

Fluorine is essential to proper thyroid function.

Thyroid hormones trigger the change of an aquatic tadpole into a terrestrial bullfrog.

Goiter is caused by hyperthyroidism.

Thyroxine and triiodothyronine, two of the thyroid hormones, are steroid hormones.



24 . Hyperthyroidism, typically characterized by a high metabolic rate and high blood pressure, might be expected when _____. (Concept 45.4 ) [Hint]

the pituitary secretes high concentrations of thyroxine

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration is high

thyroxine concentration is low

the production of TSH-releasing factor is inhibited

a person has an iodine deficiency



25 . If a diet is deficient in iodine, a goiter may form because _____. (Concept 45.4 ) [Hint]

the thyroid cannot release T3 and T4 so the hormones build up in the gland

low blood levels of T3 and T4 inhibit the negative feedback loop. An overload of TRH causes enlargement of the gland.

low blood levels of T3 and T4 inhibit the negative feedback loop. An overload of TSH causes enlargement of the gland.

researchers are not sure why goiters form during iodine deficiency

none of the above



26 . How does parathyroid hormone affect levels of Ca2+ in the blood? (Concept 45.4 ) [Hint]

When Ca2+ levels fall, PTH decomposes the matrix of bone and stimulates reabsorption of Ca2+ in the small intestines.

When Ca2+ levels rise, PTH stimulates the uptake of calcium in bones and the release of calcium in urine.

When Ca2+ levels fall, PTH stimulates bone cells to decompose the matrix of bone and stimulates reabsorption of Ca2+ in the renal tubules.

When Ca2+ levels rise, PTH stimulates the conversion of vitamin D to its active hormonal form in the kidneys and facilitates accumulation of calcium in bones.

When Ca2+ levels fall, PTH stimulates the conversion of vitamin D in the liver and stimulates bone cells to decompose the matrix of bone.



27 . Every time you eat a cookie or candy bar, your blood sugar increases. This triggers an increase in the hormone _____. (Concept 45.4 ) [Hint]

thyroxine

epinephrine

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

glucagon

insulin



28 . Which of the following hormones have antagonistic effects? (Concept 45.4 ) [Hint]

thyroxine and calcitonin

insulin and glucagon

growth hormone and epinephrine

ACTH and glucocorticoids

epinephrine and norepinephrine



29 . Which sequence below correctly describes the maintenance of glucose synthesis? (Concept 45.4 ) [Hint]

low blood sugar, pancreatic beta cells stimulated, insulin released, breakdown of glycogen in target cells

low blood sugar, pancreatic alpha cells stimulated, glucagon released, breakdown of glycogen in target cells

high blood sugar, pancreatic alpha cells stimulated, insulin released, uptake of glucose by target cells

high blood sugar, pancreatic alpha cells stimulated, glucagon released, glycogen synthesis in liver

none of the above



30 . Type 1 diabetes mellitus _____. (Concept 45.4 ) [Hint]

is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks beta cells in the pancreas

is a common disorder in overweight individuals older than 40

is treated by improving insulin receptor efficiency rather than by giving insulin

is the most common form of the disease; more than 90% of all diabetics have type 1 diabetes

can be controlled for many years with exercise and a proper diet



31 . Which of the following hormones has the broadest range of targets? (Concept 45.4 ) [Hint]

ADH

oxytocin

TSH

epinephrine

ACTH



32 . Which statement below about the catecholamines secreted by the adrenal medulla is incorrect? (Concept 45.4 ) [Hint]

They are synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine.

They shunt blood away from the skin, digestive organs, and kidneys while increasing the supply to the brain, heart, and skeletal muscles.

They increase the rate of glycogen breakdown in the liver and skeletal muscles.

They increase the rate of oxygen delivery to body cells.

They are released in response to ACTH.



33 . Which is a true statement about the adrenal medulla? (Concept 45.4 ) [Hint]

The hormone it produces causes the kidney to reabsorb sodium and water.

It produces steroid hormones.

It cannot function in hormone production without releasing hormone (RH) from the hypothalamus.

The gland is stimulated by nerve signals carried from the brain.

It secretes hormones that suppress inflammation and control pain.



34 . Which of the following endocrine glands releases steroid hormones? (Concept 45.4 ) [Hint]

anterior pituitary

posterior pituitary

adrenal medulla

adrenal cortex

pineal gland



35 . Which one of the following is a problem with the long-term use of glucocorticoids, such as cortisone, to treat inflammation? (Concept 45.4 ) [Hint]

long-term elevated blood pressure

suppression of the immune system

low blood glucose levels

abnormal blood clotting, which leads to excessive bruising

sleeplessness



36 . Anabolic steroids, sometimes taken illegally by athletes and bodybuilders, are synthetic substitutes for natural _____ produced in the _____. (Concept 45.4 ) [Hint]

testosterone ... anterior pituitary

FSH and LH ... posterior pituitary

progestin .... testes

androgens ... gonads

estrogens ... anterior pituitary



37 . In the winter, the _____ of vertebrates is apt to produce _____ than in summer months. (Concept 45.4 ) [Hint]

hypothalamus ... less prolactin

pineal gland ... more melatonin

hypothalamus ... less melatonin

pineal gland ... less growth hormone

adrenal cortex ... more ADH



38 . Which one of the following conditions in a silkworm moth would result in metamorphosis from pupa to adult? (Concept 45.5 ) [Hint]

lack of a prothoracic gland

stimulation of the corpora allata

high concentration of juvenile hormone

low concentration of juvenile hormone

high concentration of brain hormone



39 . In insects, ecdysone is released from _____. (Concept 45.5 ) [Hint]

neurosecretory cells in the brain

prothoracic glands

corpora allata

the insect's cocoon

the outer layer of the insect as it molts




الاجووبة::
________________________________________
1. Not Answered Which is not an accurate statement regarding the difference between steroid and nonsteroid hormones? (Concept 45.2 )
The Correct Answer: Steroid hormones are produced by endocrine glands; nonsteroid hormones are produced by nervous tissue.

________________________________________
2. Not Answered Neurosecretory cells can be found in the _____. (Concept 45.1 )
The Correct Answer: hypothalamus

________________________________________
3. Not Answered Which example below is a true statement about the differences between hormones and neurotransmitters? (Concept 45.1 )
The Correct Answer: Neurotransmitters convey messages between nerve cells.

________________________________________
4. Not Answered Since most chemical signals are unable to pass through the plasma membrane, the cellular action they initiate results from _____. (Concept 45.2 )
The Correct Answer: the activation of a signal transduction pathway

________________________________________
5. Not Answered What is the role of a second messenger in hormone action? (Concept 45.2 )
The Correct Answer: It relays a hormone's message inside a target cell.

________________________________________
6. Not Answered What did experiments with melanocyte-stimulating hormone, a water-soluble hormone, in the skin cells of frogs reveal about hormone action? (Concept 45.2 )
The Correct Answer: They revealed the role of cell-surface receptors in signal transduction pathways.

________________________________________
7. Not Answered Which one of the following hormones or types of hormones is thought to act at the cellular level by inducing a change in gene expression? (Concept 45.2 )
The Correct Answer: sex hormones

________________________________________
8. Not Answered Which example below is a role of nitric oxide (NO), a local regulator? (Concept 45.2 )
The Correct Answer: All of the above are correct.

________________________________________
9. Not Answered Ibuprofen is known for its pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties because it inhibits the synthesis of _____. (Concept 45.2 )
The Correct Answer: prostaglandins

________________________________________
10. Not Answered Which one of the following endocrine organs does not actually manufacture hormones but, rather, stores hormones produced elsewhere? (Concept 45.3 )
The Correct Answer: posterior pituitary

________________________________________
11. Not Answered As a young girl, Maria suffered a head injury that damaged her pituitary. An injury to the pituitary is particularly serious because of all the functions controlled by this gland. As Maria got older, she and her doctors found that all of the following except her _____ were affected. (Concept 45.3 )
The Correct Answer: blood sugar level

________________________________________
12. Not Answered A doctor might give an expectant mother _____ to stimulate uterine contractions and induce labor. (Concept 45.3 )
The Correct Answer: oxytocin

________________________________________
13. Not Answered The regulation of water volume in the blood involves which hormone? (Concept 45.3 )
The Correct Answer: ADH

________________________________________
14. Not Answered How does the hypothalamus control the secretion of growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary? (Concept 45.3 )
The Correct Answer: The hypothalamus produces a releasing hormone that stimulates the pituitary to secrete GH.

________________________________________
15. Not Answered Which of the following is a hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary? (Concept 45.3 )
The Correct Answer: oxytocin

________________________________________
16. Not Answered FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone) are trophic hormones that are also known as _____. (Concept 45.3 )
The Correct Answer: gonadotropins

________________________________________
17. Not Answered Which of the following hormones specifically act(s) to trigger secretion of hormones by another endocrine gland? (Concept 45.3 )
The Correct Answer: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

________________________________________
18. Not Answered Which is a correct statement about prolactin? (Concept 45.3 )
The Correct Answer: It controls fat metabolism and reproduction in birds.

________________________________________
19. Not Answered The mammary glands of a pregnant female will begin to produce milk in response to changes in the level of which of the following hormones? (Concept 45.3 )
The Correct Answer: prolactin

________________________________________
20. Not Answered The major tropic action of growth hormone is to signal the _____ to release _____. (Concept 45.2 )
The Correct Answer: liver .... insulin-like growth factors

________________________________________
21. Not Answered How is the level of thyroxine in the blood regulated? (Concept 45.4 )
The Correct Answer: High levels of T3 and T4 inhibit the secretion of TRH and TSH.

________________________________________
22. Not Answered Which disorder is correctly matched with its cause? (Concept 45.3 )
The Correct Answer: pituitary dwarfism ... hyposecretion of growth hormone

________________________________________
23. Not Answered Which is a correct statement about the thyroid gland? (Concept 45.4 )
The Correct Answer: Thyroid hormones trigger the change of an aquatic tadpole into a terrestrial bullfrog.

________________________________________
24. Not Answered Hyperthyroidism, typically characterized by a high metabolic rate and high blood pressure, might be expected when _____. (Concept 45.4 )
The Correct Answer: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration is high

________________________________________
25. Not Answered If a diet is deficient in iodine, a goiter may form because _____. (Concept 45.4 )
The Correct Answer: low blood levels of T3 and T4 inhibit the negative feedback loop. An overload of TSH causes enlargement of the gland.

________________________________________
26. Not Answered How does parathyroid hormone affect levels of Ca2+ in the blood? (Concept 45.4 )
The Correct Answer: When Ca2+ levels fall, PTH stimulates bone cells to decompose the matrix of bone and stimulates reabsorption of Ca2+ in the renal tubules.

________________________________________
27. Not Answered Every time you eat a cookie or candy bar, your blood sugar increases. This triggers an increase in the hormone _____. (Concept 45.4 )
The Correct Answer: insulin

________________________________________
28. Not Answered Which of the following hormones have antagonistic effects? (Concept 45.4 )
The Correct Answer: insulin and glucagon

________________________________________
29. Not Answered Which sequence below correctly describes the maintenance of glucose synthesis? (Concept 45.4 )
The Correct Answer: low blood sugar, pancreatic alpha cells stimulated, glucagon released, breakdown of glycogen in target cells

________________________________________
30. Not Answered Type 1 diabetes mellitus _____. (Concept 45.4 )
The Correct Answer: is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks beta cells in the pancreas

________________________________________
31. Not Answered Which of the following hormones has the broadest range of targets? (Concept 45.4 )
The Correct Answer: epinephrine

________________________________________
32. Not Answered Which statement below about the catecholamines secreted by the adrenal medulla is incorrect? (Concept 45.4 )
The Correct Answer: They are released in response to ACTH.

________________________________________
33. Not Answered Which is a true statement about the adrenal medulla? (Concept 45.4 )
The Correct Answer: The gland is stimulated by nerve signals carried from the brain.

________________________________________
34. Not Answered Which of the following endocrine glands releases steroid hormones? (Concept 45.4 )
The Correct Answer: adrenal cortex

________________________________________
35. Not Answered Which one of the following is a problem with the long-term use of glucocorticoids, such as cortisone, to treat inflammation? (Concept 45.4 )
The Correct Answer: suppression of the immune system

________________________________________
36. Not Answered Anabolic steroids, sometimes taken illegally by athletes and bodybuilders, are synthetic substitutes for natural _____ produced in the _____. (Concept 45.4 )
The Correct Answer: androgens ... gonads

________________________________________
37. Not Answered In the winter, the _____ of vertebrates is apt to produce _____ than in summer months. (Concept 45.4 )
The Correct Answer: pineal gland ... more melatonin

________________________________________
38. Not Answered Which one of the following conditions in a silkworm moth would result in metamorphosis from pupa to adult? (Concept 45.5 )
The Correct Answer: low concentration of juvenile hormone

________________________________________
39. Not Answered In insects, ecdysone is released from _____. (Concept 45.5 )
The Correct Answer: prothoracic glands


اخيرا لاتنسونا من دعواتكم
ربي يسهل علينا وييسر امورنا ويوفقنا
ويكتب اللي فيه الخيرة لنا
ربي اشرح لي صدري
ويسر لي امري
موفقات جميعا وسامحونا وحللونا
طموحي الجنون

سوري ماعندي وقت ازين هذا الشئ

نعسانة مانمت الا نص ساعة الفجر بالتوفيق جميعا

قلب2قلب2

MiSs Roro
18th June 2009, 12:41 PM
^
^^

ياحبي لك .. تعبتك معي :×
الورد حقي فاقع كبدي بات1

يــآجعل ربي يوفقك دنيـآ و آخره
وتــآخذين +A في جميع الموآد قلب2

قلب2 قلب2 قلب2
:ورده:

طموحي الجنون
18th June 2009, 12:50 PM
8

بنات انا كم مرة كبكبتها

>يعني عملتها لها كوبي

جاني حول وانا اصلا نايمة

مكررتها اولا ؟؟ههه

>جمعتها لكم برد واحد وجزيئية ميد ثاني

نزلتها بالصفحات اللي قبل والميد الاول

ان شاء الله يكون الملف فاتح معاكم

مخدتي العزيزة لقد اشتقت اليكقلب2

موفقات جميعاا

أميرة روحي
18th June 2009, 07:37 PM
الله يستر بس

مس فوووشيا
18th June 2009, 08:16 PM
بنات ممكن سؤال
الحين فيه احد منكم ذاكر الاسئلة وجاب درجة حلوة
لانو درجاتي مرررة واطيه
ساعدوني الله يوفقكم

DR. Hano6a
18th June 2009, 08:44 PM
والله انا ما اذاكر من الاسئلة والحمدالله كويسه ... بس لو اني مذاكر من الاسئلة على الكتاب كان اكوس شيء ..


فنصيحة ذاكروا من الكتاب بعدين روحوا حلو كل الاسئلة ...

وانا عندي سؤال ياليت احد يفهمني عجز يدخل مخي


الحين وشو الروموسوم و وش الكرومتيد وايات وحده تنقسم لان انحست ما رصت تدخل مخي

dr.to0o0tah
18th June 2009, 11:20 PM
السلام عليكم بنوتاات

د\برومي طلبت اشياء معينه نذاكرهاا بالهرمون ياليت اللي لخصتهااا تنزلناا في المنتدى والله لايحرمهاا الاجر وياااارب الفل مااارك

messo
19th June 2009, 12:25 AM
^^^^


حتى احنا دكتوره علا حددت اشياء معينه نذاكرها من الهرمونات

ياليت اللي حددتها تعلمناا

ومشكوراات مقدماا (f)

Dr.Ammora
19th June 2009, 07:18 AM
ما شاء الله على دكتوراتكم..قلب2
احنا دكتورتنا الجميلة .. (د- تهاني) ما جابت طاري التحديد أبدا..خط1
<< الله يعين.. من جد طويل و يخربط ..لو2

بالتوفيق للجميع:ورده:

M!shoo ~
19th June 2009, 08:30 AM
د. برومي (قلب) عب1

قالت بس ذاكروا اسم الهرمون + العضو اللي ينتجه + العضو اللي يوصل له (target) + الوظيفة (function)

دعواتكم ،، توي ببدأ الحين لو2

المرااام
19th June 2009, 09:06 AM
صباح الخير بنات
دكتوراتكم ما قالو لكم شي عن طريقه الاسئله >> نفس الميد تيرمس والا فيها كتابه
موفقااااااااااااااااااااا اااااات

F A T Y
19th June 2009, 09:19 AM
بنااات بصيييح وش السواات الحييين
بديت ادرس تشابتر 12 وقلت بخلصة هو و 13
الساعه 12 ولا مرت ساعه وانا على صفحتين مدري ثلاث
لو2لو2لو2لو2لو2لو2

ينفع اذاكر من اسألة الكتاب + اسألة الإختبارات إلي قبل
خصوصا ان درجاتي مرررة نازلة بالميدين الأول و الثاني
الأول رستة من نفسي و الثاني رحت لمدرسة وكلهم فشل ذريع

:ل6::ل6::ل6:
وش اسوييييي وش نصييحتكم ؟؟

و إذا بغيت اخذ اسأة اختبارات قبل
من وين ممكن اخذهم ؟

لو2
إلي تعرف تقولي الله يعافيها

Fun 123
19th June 2009, 09:22 AM
^^^

صديقتي سألت وقالولها كلو إختياري

و60 % إلى 80% الاسئله من الجزء الأخير في المنهج إلي ما اختبرنا فيه

الإمتحان من 40 درجه 80 سؤال كل سؤال عليه (نص درجه )>>> يازينهم مو مثل الفيز درجه وربع والفاينل درجه ونص:ؤ:

وبالتووفيق

M!shoo ~
19th June 2009, 09:33 AM
بنااات بصيييح وش السواات الحييين
بديت ادرس تشابتر 12 وقلت بخلصة هو و 13
الساعه 12 ولا مرت ساعه وانا على صفحتين مدري ثلاث
لو2لو2لو2لو2لو2لو2

ينفع اذاكر من اسألة الكتاب + اسألة الإختبارات إلي قبل
خصوصا ان درجاتي مرررة نازلة بالميدين الأول و الثاني
الأول رستة من نفسي و الثاني رحت لمدرسة وكلهم فشل ذريع

:ل6::ل6::ل6:
وش اسوييييي وش نصييحتكم ؟؟

و إذا بغيت اخذ اسأة اختبارات قبل
من وين ممكن اخذهم ؟

لو2
إلي تعرف تقولي الله يعافيها



لسى باقي وقت ،، ليش مستعجلة

وشي طبيعي إنك تطولين ،، والشي الغير طبيعي إنك تخلصين تشابترين بكم ساعة

عطي كل شي حقة ،، لا تروحين للي بعده إلا وانتي فاهمة اللي قبل

مو مهم كم خلصتي من صفحة ... أهم شي تفهمينه ...!

حاولي إقريه بهدوء وشوفي الرسمات ورتبي المعلومات ،، وسوّي مقارنات مثلاً بين الميوسيس والميتوسيس ...إلخ ،، مرة تفيد بالمذاكرة


أما عن أسئلة الكتاب أبداً لا تعتمدين عليهم ...!

إذا جابوا يمكن يجيبون من 5 إلى 8 أسئلة بس ...!!

أحسن شي ذاكري وحاولي تفهمين ،، الفهم بهالجزئية أهم من الحفظ ...!

وتوكّلي على الله قبل كل شي :ورده:

F A T Y
19th June 2009, 09:46 AM
طيب اختي ميشو المنهج طويل
خايفة ما يمديني اخلص
وبنسبة للتشابتر الأخير
مافهمت الحين هو عن وشو يتكلم بضبط
كلة عن الهرمونات ونذاكر بس إلي قالوة
البنات ولا يشمل اشياء ثانية ؟

Dr.Pain
19th June 2009, 10:17 AM
^^^^
معليش انا بارد عليك
اي والله يا قلبي المنهج طويل بس انشاءلله يمديك تخلصي
اليوم كله اقعدي على شابتر 12 + 13 ولا يجي بكره الا انك فاهمته و ملخصته وبالنسبه للتشابتر الاخير زي ما قالوا البنات لكن لاتنسي تقري الكلام اللي على كل هرمون ثم احفظي الجدول عن ظهر قلب والله يلخص كل شي
تفااااااااااااااااااااااا ءلي db2 وشدي حيلك وبكذا وربي حتجيبي مارك حلوووه ترفع معدلك
ولا تنسين الدعاء والاستغفار اذا ما وقفتي عند نقطه مو فاهمتها
وبالتوفيييييييييييييييق للجميع
ولا تنسين دعوه لاختك في ظهر الغيب قلب2:ورده:تغ1

,, blank ..
19th June 2009, 11:23 AM
بنات عندي سؤال as076

وش الفرق بين الـ chromosome والـ chromaitds والـ chromatin والـ homologuse pair ؟؟

ادري سؤال وحده مضيعه بس ساعدوني as076عب1

وشكرا قلب2